星力9代

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                                1. 首页 > 联合国人权机制与中国 > 国际人权文书 > 儿童权利委员会通过的一般性意见 >
                                  第17号一般性意见:关于儿童享有休息和闲暇、从事游戏和娱乐活动、参加文化生活和艺术活动的权利

                                  2013-12-02 15:09:46   来源:   

                                  第17号一般性意见:关于儿童享有休息和闲暇、从事游戏和娱乐活动、参加文化生活和艺术活动的权利(第31条)

                                  (2013年)*

                                    一. 导言

                                    1. GUOJISHEHUIZAOYIRENSHIDAOYOUXIHEYULEZAISUOYOUERTONGDESHENGHUOZHONGFAHUIDEZHONGYAOZUOYONG。1959NIANDE《ERTONGQUANLIXUANYAN》ZHONGSUOZUODESHENGMING――“ERTONGYINGYOUYOUXIHEYULEDECHONGFENJIHUI[……];SHEHUIHEGONGZHONGSHIWUDANGJUYINGJINLISHEFASHIERTONGDEXIANGCIZHONGQUANLI”(DIQITIAO)――JIZHENGMINGLEZHEIYIDIAN。1989NIANDE《ERTONGQUANLIGONGYUE》(《GONGYUE》)JINYIBUQIANGHUAZHEIYISHENGMING,ZAIQIDI31TIAOZHONGMINGQUEZHICHU:“DIYUEGUOQUERENERTONGYOUQUANXIANGYOUXIUXIHEXIANXIA,CONGSHIYUERTONGNIANLINGXIANGYIDEYOUXIHEYULEHUODONG,YIJIZIYOUCANJIAWENHUASHENGHUOHEYISHUHUODONG。”

                                    2. RANER,WEIYUANHUIJIYUDUI《GONGYUE》ZHIXIAERTONGQUANLILUOSHIQINGKUANGDESHENCHA,DUIDIYUEGUODUIDI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLIRENSHIBUZUBIAOSHIGUANQIE。DUIZHEIXIEQUANLIZAIERTONGSHENGHUOZHONGFAHUIDEZHONGYAOZUOYONGRENSHIBUZU,DAOZHIMEIYOUWEITIGONGSHIDANGSHESHIJINXINGTOUZI,BAOHUXINGFALVBORUOHUOGENBENBUCUNZAI,YIJIGUOJIAHEDIFANGCENGMIANDEGUIHUABUKAOLVERTONGDENGWENTI。YIBANERYAN,TOUZIBEIYONGYUTIGONGYOUGUIHUAHEYOUZUZHIDEHUODONG,DANTONGYANGZHONGYAODESHI,BIXUWEIERTONGCHUANGZAOSHIJIANYUKONGJIAN,SHITAMENNENGGOUCONGSHIZIFAYOUXI、YULEHECHUANGZAOXINGHUODONG,BINGCUJINSHEHUIZHICHIHEGULIZHEILEIHUODONGDETAIDU。

                                    3. WEIYUANHUIYOUWEIGUANQIEDESHI,MOUXIETEDINGQUNTIERTONG,TEBIESHINVTONG、PINKUNERTONG、CANJIERTONG、TUZHUERTONG、SHAOSHUMINZUERTONGDENGZAIXIANGYOUDI31TIAOGUIDINGDEQUANLIHEHUODEPINGDENGTIAOJIANFANGMIANMIANLINKUNNAN。

                                    4. CIWAI,SHIJIEDESHENKEBIANGEDUIERTONGXIANGYOUDI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLIDEJIHUICHANSHENGLEZHONGDAYINGXIANG。CHENGSHIRENKOU,YOUQISHIFAZHANZHONGGUOJIADECHENGSHIRENKOUZHENGZAIDAFUDUZENGJIA,YUCITONGSHI,QUANQIUFANWEINEIGEZHONGXINGSHIDEBAOLI――ZAIJIAZHONG、XUEXIAO、DAZHONGMEITIHEJIETOUDEBAOLIYURIJUZENG。ZHEIXIEBAOLIDEYINGXIANG,JIASHANGSUOTIGONGYOUXISHESHIDESHANGYEHUA,DOUYINGXIANGZHEERTONGCANJIAYULEJIWENHUAHEYISHUHUODONGDEFANGSHI。DUIFUYUHEPINQIONGGUOJIADEXUDUOERTONGERYAN,TONGGONG、JIATINGGONGZUOHUOJIAOYUYAOQIUDETIGAOSHITAMENKEYONGYUXIANGSHOUZHEIXIEQUANLIDESHIJIANJIANSHAO。

                                  星力9代  5. BIANXIEBENJIELUNXINGYIJIANZHIZAIYINGDUIZHEIXIEGUANQIEWENTI,TIGAODI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLIDEDIWEI,CUJINDIYUEGUODUIZHEIXIEQUANLIZAIMEIGEERTONGDESHENGHUOHEFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONGFAHUIDEHEXINZUOYONGDERENSHIHELIJIE,BINGCUQINGDIYUEGUOZHIDINGCUOSHI,QUEBAOLUOSHIZHEIXIEQUANLI。DI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLIPUBIANSHIYONGYUSHIJIESHANGGEZHONGGEYANGDEXIAOQUYUSHEHUI,ZUNZHONGSUOYOUWENHUACHUANTONGHEWENHUAXINGSHIDEJIAZHIGUAN。MEIGEERTONGBULUNSHENGHUOZAIHECHU,WENHUABEIJINGRUHE,QIFUMUDEDIWEIRUHE,DOUYINGNENGGOUXIANGYOUZHEIXIEQUANLI。

                                    6. BENJIELUNXINGYIJIANJINZAIBIAOMIANSHANGCHUJITIYUYUNDONGZHEIYIYITI,YINWEITAZISHENJIUSHIYIXIANGZHONGYAOYITI。JIUWENHUASHENGHUOERYAN,BENYIBANXINGYIJIANZHUYAOCEZHONGYUCHUANGZAOXINGHUOYISHUHUODONGXIANGGUANDEFANGMIAN,ERFEIDI30TIAOSUOSHUERTONGXIANGYOUZIJIDEWENHUADEQUANLIZHEIYIGENGGUANGYIDEDINGYI。

                                    二.目标

                                  星力9代  7.BENYIBANXINGYIJIANZHIZAICUJINDUIDI31TIAODUIERTONGDEFUZHIHEFAZHANSUOFAHUIDEZHONGYAOZUOYONGDELIJIE;QUEBAOZUNZHONGHEJIAQIANGSHIYONGDI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLIYIJI《GONGYUE》SUOZAIQITAQUANLI,BINGTUCHUQIANGDIAOYINGXIANG,YIBIANQUEDING:

                                    a. DIYUEGUOZAIZHIDINGZHIZAISHIXIANHECHONGFENLUOSHIDI31TIAOSUOJIEDINGDEQUANLIDESUOYOUZHIXINGCUOSHI、ZHANLVEHEFANGANFANGMIANYINGJINDEYIWU;

                                  星力9代  b. SIYINGBUMENDEZUOYONGHEZEREN,BAOKUOCONGSHIYULE、WENHUAHEYISHUHUODONGDEGONGSIYIJIWEIERTONGTIGONGZHEILEIFUWUDEMINJIANSHEHUIZUZHIDEZUOYONGHEZEREN;

                                    c. JIUYOUXIHEYULEFANGMIANKECAIQUDESUOYOUXINGDONG,XIANGBAOKUOJIAZHANGZAINEICONGSHIERTONGGONGZUODESUOYOURENTIGONGZHIDAO。

                                    三. 第31条在儿童生活中的重要意义

                                    8.LIJIEDI31TIAOBIXUCAINAZHENGTIFANGSHI,JILIJIEQIZUCHENGBUFEN,HAIXULIJIEGAITIAOYUZHENGGE《GONGYUE》ZHIJIANDEGUANXI。DI31TIAODEGEXIANGYAOSUSHIXIANGHULIANXI、XIANGFUXIANGCHENGDE,MANZUZHEIXIEYAOSUKEFENGFUERTONGDESHENGHUO。ZHEIXIEYAOSUJIEHEZAIYIQI,GOUCHENGWEIERTONGDUTEHEBUDUANFAZHANDETIANXINGTIGONGBAOHUDEBIYAOTIAOJIAN。MANZUZHEIXIEYAOSUDUITONGNIANSHENGHUODEZHILIANG、DUIERTONGXIANGYOUZUIJIAFAZHANDEQUANLI、DUICUJINRENXINGHESHIXIANQITAQUANLIZHIGUANZHONGYAO。JUTIERYAN,YIZHONGHUANJINGRUGUONENGGOUWEISUOYOUERTONGTIGONGYOUXIHEYULEJIHUI,JIUWEICHUANGZAOXINGTIGONGLETIAOJIAN;YOUJIHUITONGGUOZIFAYOUXIFAHUINENGLI,KECUJINJILI、TILIHUODONGHEJINENGDEFAZHAN;RONGRUWENHUASHENGHUOKEFENGFUYOUQUWEIDEHUDONGJIAOLIU;XIUXINENGGOUQUEBAOERTONGYONGYOUCANYUYOUXIHECHUANGZAOXINGHUODONGSUOXUDEJINGLIHEDONGLI。

                                  星力9代  9.YOUXIHEYULEDUIERTONGDEJIANKANGHEFUZHIZHIGUANZHONGYAO,KECUJINCHUANGZAOXING、XIANGXIANGLI、ZIXIN、ZIWOXIAONENGYIJISHENTI、SHEHUI、RENZHIHEQINGGANLILIANGHEJINENGDEPEIYANG。YOUXIHEYULEKECUJINXUEXIDESUOYOUFANGMIAN;1YOUXIHEYULESHICANYURICHANGSHENGHUODEYIZHONGXINGSHI,TAMENJUYOUNEIZAIJIAZHI,ZHENGSHIYINWEITAMENWEIERTONGTIGONGLEXIANGSHOUHEKUAILE。YANJIUZHENGJUQIANGDIAO,YOUXIDUIERTONGZIFACHANSHENGFAZHANDONGLIZHIGUANZHONGYAO,DUIDANAODEFAZHANFAHUIZHONGYAOZUOYONG,YOUQISHIZAIYOUNIANSHIQI。YOUXIHEYULEYOUZHUYUCUJINERTONGTANPAN,ZHONGXINPINGHENGQINGGAN,JIEJUECHONGTUHEZUOCHUJUECEDENENGLI。TONGGUOCANJIAYOUXIHEYULE,ERTONGZAIXINGWEIZHONGXUEXI;TAMENTANSUOHEGANZHIZHOUWEIDESHIJIE;CHANGSHIXINDEXIANGFA、JIAOSEHETIYAN,BINGZAIZHEIYIGUOCHENGZHONGXUEXILIJIEHEGOUZHUTAMENZAISHIJIEZHONGSUOCHUDESHEHUIDIWEI。

                                    10.ERTONGKEZAIDUCHUSHI、YUHUOBANZAIYIQISHIHUOZAIYOUCHENGRENZHICHIDEQINGKUANGXIAYOUXIHEYULE。ERTONGDEFAZHANKEDEDAOGUANHUAIHEAIHUTAMENDECHENGRENDEZHICHI,YINWEITAMENTONGGUOYOUXIYUERTONGGOUTONG。CANJIAERTONGDEYOUXISHICHENGRENHUODEDUTEDEDONGCHALI,BINGNENGGOUCONGERTONGDESHIJIAOCHUFALIJIEWENTI。CHENGRENCANYUERTONGYOUXIPEIYANGLIANGDAIRENZHIJIANDEXIANGHUZUNZHONG,YOULIYUERTONGHECHENGRENZHIJIANYOUXIAODEXIANGHULIJIEHEGOUTONG,BINGCHUANGZAOLETIGONGZHIDAOHEJILIDEJIHUI。CHENGRENCANYUYULEHUODONG,BAOKUOZIYUANCANJIAYOUZUZHIDETIYUXIANGMU、JINGSAIHEQITAYULEHUODONGKESHIERTONGHUOYI。DANSHI,RUGUOCHENGRENSHIJIAGUODUOKONGZHI,YIZHIYUPOHUAILEERTONGZIJIZUZHIHEKAIZHANYOUXIHUODONGDENULI,ZEHUIJIANGDIKEZAIPEIYANGCHUANGZAOXING、LINGDAONENGLIHETUANDUIJINGSHENDENGFANGMIANQUDEDESHOUYI。

                                  星力9代  11.CANJIAMOUYIXIAOQUDEWENHUASHENGHUOSHIERTONGHUODEGUISHUGANDEZHONGYAOYINSU。ERTONGJICHENGHETIYANQIJIATING、XIAOQUHESHEHUIDEWENHUAJIYISHUSHENGHUO,TONGGUOZHEIGEGUOCHENGFAXIANHESUZAOZISHENDERENTONGGAN,BINGFANGUOLAICUJINDUIWENHUASHENGHUOHECHUANTONGYISHUDEJILI,JIAQIANGQIKECHIXUXING。

                                  星力9代  12.CIWAI,ERTONGTONGGUOZIJIDEXIANGXIANGYOUXI、GEQU、WUDAO、DONGHUA、GUSHI、HUIHUA、BISAI、JIETOUXIJU、MUOUYOUXI、JIERIDENGHUODONG,FUZHI、GAIBIAN、CHUANGZAOHECHUANBOWENHUA。SUIZHETAMENCONGDARENHEHUOBANGUANXIZHONGHUODEDUIZHOUWEIWENHUAHEYISHUSHENGHUODELIJIE,TAMENHUITONGGUOZIJIZHEIYIDAIRENDEJINGYANJIESHIHEDIAOZHENGZHEIZHONGSHENGHUODEYIYI。TONGGUOYUHUOBANDEWANSHUA,ERTONGCHUANGZAOHECHUANDIZIJIDEYUYAN、YOUXI、MIMIDESHIJIE、HUANXIANGJIQITAWENHUAZHISHI。CONGERTONGDEYOUXIDANGZHONGSHENGFACHUYIZHONG“ERTONGWENHUA”,CONGXUEXIAOHEYOUXICHANGSUODEYOUXI,DAOCHENGSHIERTONGDEHUODONG,RUWANDANQIU、ZIYOUBENPAO、JIETOUYISHUDENGDENG。ERTONGYESHILVXIANSHIYONGSHUZIPINGTAIHEXUNISHIJIEJIANLIXINDEGOUTONGFANGSHIHESHEJIAOWANGLUODERENQUN,ZHEILEIWANGLUOZHENGZAISUZAOBUTONGDEWENHUAHUANJINGHEYISHUXINGSHI。CANJIAWENHUAHEYISHUHUODONGBUJINYOULIYUBANGZHUERTONGXINGCHENGDUIZISHENWENHUADELIJIE,YEBANGZHUTAMENLIJIEQITAWENHUA,YINWEIZHEIZHONGHUODONGWEITAMENTIGONGLEKUODASHIYEHECONGQITAWENHUAHEYISHUCHUANTONGZHONGXUEXIDEJIHUI,YOULIYUXIANGHULIJIEHEXINSHANGDUOYANGXING。

                                  星力9代  13.ZUIHOU,XIUXIHEXIANXIADUIERTONGFAZHANDEZHONGYAOXINGBUYAYUYINGYANG、ZHUFANG、YILIAOBAOJIANHEJIAOYUDENGJIBENYAOSU。RUGUODEBUDAOCHONGFENDEXIUXI,ERTONGJIUQUEFAJINXINGYOUYIYIDECANYUHUOXUEXISUOXUDEJINGLI、DONGLIJITINENGHEXINZHIHUILI。BODUOERTONGDEXIUXIQUANKENENGDUIERTONGDESHENTIHEXINZHIFAZHAN、JIANKANGHEFUZHIZAOCHENGWUFAWANHUIDEYINGXIANG。ERTONGHAIXUYAOXIANXIA,JIMEIYOURENHEYIWU、YULEHUODONGHUOCIJIWUDESHIJIANHEKONGJIAN,TAMENKEYIXUANZEANZHAOZIJIDEYIYUAN,YIHUODONGHUOBUHUODONGDEFANGSHITIANBUZHEIXIESHIJIANHEKONGJIAN。

                                    四.第31条法律分析

                                  星力9代  A.DI31TIAO,DI1KUAN

                                    14.DIYUEGUOCHENGRENERTONGXIANGYOUYIXIAQUANLI:

                                    a. XIUXI:XIUXIQUANYAOQIUYUNXUERTONGNENGGOUCONGRENHEZHONGLEIDEGONGZUO、JIAOYUHUOXIAOHAOTILIDEHUODONGZHONGCHONGFENHUIFUGUOLAI,YIQUEBAOTAMENDEZUIJIAJIANKANGZHUANGKUANGHEFUZHI。ZHEIYIQUANLIHAIYAOQIUWEIERTONGTIGONGCHONGZUSHUIMIANDEJIHUI。ZAIBANGZHUERTONGSHIXIANHUODONGHOUHUIFUTILIHECHONGZUSHUIMIANDEQUANLISHI,BIXUKAOLVERTONGNENGLIDEBIANHUAJIQIFAZHANXUYAO。

                                    b. XIANXIA:XIANXIAZHIDESHIKEYONGYUYOUXIHUOYULEDESHIJIAN。QIDINGYISHIZIYOUSHIJIAN,JIBUZHIDINGYONGTUDESHIJIAN,ZAIZHEIYISHIJIANZHONGBUJINXINGZHENGSHIJIAOYU、BUGONGZUO、BUCHENGDANJIATINGZEREN、LVXINGQITAWEICHISHENGJIDEZHINENGHUOCANJIAGERENYIWAIDEQITARENZHIDAODEHUODONG。HUANERYANZHI,ZHEISHIZHUYAOYOUERTONGANZHAOZIJIDEYIYUANZIYOUCHUZHIDESHIJIAN。

                                    c. YOUXI:ERTONGDEYOUXIZHIDESHIYOUERTONGBENSHENFAQI、KONGZHIHEZUZHIDERENHEXINGWEI、HUODONGHUOCHENGXU;ZHIYAOCHUXIANJIHUI,YOUXIKEZAIRENHESHIJIAN、RENHEDIDIANJINXING。KANHURENKEBANGZHUCHUANGZAOYOUXIHUANJING,DANYOUXIBENSHENBINGFEIQIANGZHI,TASHOUNEIZAIDONGLIQUSHI,YOUXIBENSHENJIUSHIMUDE,ERFEIDADAOZUIZHONGMUDEDESHOUDUAN。YOUXIYOULIYUFAHUIZIZHUXING、BAOKUOSHENTI、XINLIHUOQINGGANHUODONG,QIXINGSHIKENENGMEIYOUQIONGJIN,KENENGZAITUANTIZHONGHUODANDUJINXING。ZHEIXIEXINGSHIZAIZHENGGETONGNIANQIJIANBUDUANBIANHUAHEDIAOZHENG。YOUXIDEGUANJIANTEZHENGBAOKUOQUWEIXING、BUQUEDINGXING、TIAOZHAN、LINGHUOXINGHEFEISHENGCHANXING。ZHEIXIEYINSUJIEHEZAIYIQICUJINLEYOUXIJIFADEKUAILEGAN,BINGWEIJIXUYOUXITIGONGDONGLI。JINGCHANGYOURENRENWEIYOUXIBINGBUZHONGYAO,DANWEIYUANHUIZHONGSHEN,YOUXISHIERTONGSHIDAIKUAILESHENGHUODEYIGEGENBENHEZHONGYAOFANGMIAN,YESHISHENTI、SHEHUI、RENZHI、QINGGANHEJINGSHENFAZHANDEYIXIANGGUANJIANYAOSU。

                                  星力9代  d. YULEHUODONG:YULESHIYIGEZONGKUOSHUYU,YONGYUMIAOSHUXINGXINGSESEDEGEZHONGHUODONG,QIZHONGBAOKUOCANJIAYINLE、YISHU、SHOUGONGHUODONG、XIAOQUHUODONG、JULEBU、TIYUYUNDONG、JINGSAI、TUBULVXINGHEYEYING、PEIYANGAIHAODENG。YULEHUODONGBAOKUOERTONGZIYUANXUANZEDEHUODONGHUOTIYAN,HUOZHEYINWEIWANCHENGZHEIXIEHUODONGHUOTIYANNENGGOUSHIERTONGLIJIDEDAOMANZU,HUOZHEYINWEITA/TARENWEIZIJINENGGOUCONGZHONGSHIXIANYIXIEGERENHUOSHEHUIJIAZHI。YULEJINGCHANGZAIZHUANMENWEIYULEERSHEJIDEKONGJIANZHONGJINXING。SUIRANXUDUOYULEHUODONGKENENGSHIYOUCHENGNIANRENZUZHIHEGUANLIDE,DANYULEYINGDANGSHIYIXIANGZIYUANHUODONG。LIRU,QIANGZHIHUOBEIPOCANJIAJINGSAIHETIYUYUNDONGHUOQIANGZHICANJIAQINGNIANRENZUZHIDOUBUSHUYUYULE。

                                  星力9代  e. YUERTONGDENIANLINGXIANGYI:DI31TIAOQIANGDIAOHUODONGYUERTONGNIANLINGXIANGYIDEZHONGYAOXING。JIUYOUXIHEYULEERYAN,ZAIQUEDINGTIGONGDESHIJIAN、KEYONGKONGJIANHEHUANJINGDETEXING、JILIDEXINGSHIHEDUOYANGXING、BIYAODECHENGRENJIANGUANCHENGDUYIJIQUEBAOANQUANHEBAOANDENGWENTISHI,BIXUKAOLVERTONGDENIANLING。SUIZHEERTONGZHUJIANZHANGDA,TAMENDEXUQIUHEYUANWANGHUIFASHENGBIANHUA,CONGXIWANGTIGONGYOUYOUXIJIHUIDECHANGSUOZHUANBIANWEITIGONGSHEJIAOJIHUI,YUHUOBANXIANGCHUHUODUCHUDECHANGSUO。TAMENHAIHUIZHUJIANTANSUOGENGDUOXUYAOCHENGDANFENGXIANHEYINGDUITIAOZHANDEJIHUI。ZHEIXIETIYANFUHEQINGSHAONIANDEFAZHANXUYAO,YOULIYUTAMENZHAODAORENTONGHEGUISHUGAN。

                                  星力9代  f. WENHUASHENGHUOHEYISHUHUODONG:WEIYUANHUIZANTONGYIZHONGGUANDIAN,JIERTONGJIQITUANTIZHENGSHITONGGUOWENHUASHENGHUOHEYISHUHUODONGLAIBIAODATAMENDETEDINGSHENFENJIQIFUYUSHENGCUNDEYIYI,BINGZAIYUYINGXIANGQISHENGHUODEWAIBULILIANGPENGZHUANGZHIHOUJIANLITAMENDESHIJIEGUAN。2WENHUAHEYISHUBIAOXIANXINGSHIKEZAIJIAZHONG、XUEXIAO、JIETOUHEGONGGONGCHANGSUOJINXING,HAIKETONGGUOWUDAO、JIERI、SHOUGONG、QINGZHUHUODONG、YISHI、XIJU、WENXUE、YINLE、DIANYING、ZHANLAN、YINGPIAN、SHUZIPINGTAIHESHIPINDENGFANGSHISHIXIAN。WENHUAFAYUANYUZHENGGEXIAOQU;BUDEBODUORENHEERTONGCHUANGZAOWENHUAHUOCONGZHONGHUOYIDEQUANLI。WENHUASHENGHUOLAIZIWENHUAHEXIAOQUNEIBU,ERFEIZISHANGZHIXIAQIANGJIAYUREN,GUOJIADANRENTIGONGBIANLIZHEERFEIGONGYINGZHEDEJIAOSE。3

                                  星力9代  g. ZIYOUCANJIA:ERTONGZIYOUCANJIAWENHUASHENGHUOHEYISHUHUODONGDEQUANLIYAOQIUDIYUEGUOGENJUQUEBAOBAOHUERTONGHEZENGJINERTONGZUIDALIYIDEYIWU,ZUNZHONGERTONGHUODEXUANZEHECANYUZHEILEIHUODONGDEQUANLI,BIMIANDUIQISHISHIGANSHE。DIYUEGUOHAIBIXUQUEBAOZHEIXIANGQUANLIBUSHOUDAOQITARENDEXIANZHI。ERTONGJUEDINGXINGSHIHUOBUXINGSHIZHEIXIANGQUANLISHIGERENXUANZE,YINCI,QIJUEDINGYINGDEDAOCHENGREN、ZUNZHONGHEBAOHU。

                                  星力9代  B.DI31TIAO,DI2KUAN

                                  星力9代  15.DIYUEGUOYINGZUNZHONGBINGCUJINERTONGDEYIXIAQUANLI:

                                  星力9代  a. CHONGFENCANJIAWENHUAHEYISHUSHENGHUO:CHONGFENCANJIADEQUANLIJUYOUSANGEXIANGHULIANXIBINGXIANGFUXIANGCHENGDEFANGMIAN:

                                    (YI)“JIECHU”YAOQIUWEIERTONGTIGONGTIYANWENHUAHEYISHUSHENGHUOJILEJIEGEZHONGBUTONGBIAODAXINGSHIDEJIHUI;

                                  星力9代  (ER)“CANYU”YAOQIUBAOZHENGWEIERTONGGERENHUOTUANTITIGONGQIESHIJIHUI,SHITAMENNENGGOUZIYOUDIBIAODAZIJI、GOUTONG、BIAOXIANHECANJIACHUANGZAOXINGHUODONG,CONGERSHITAMENDEGEXINGDEDAOCHONGFENFAZHAN;

                                  星力9代  (SAN)CUJINWENHUASHENGHUO”BAOKUOERTONGYOUQUANCUJINYIJINGSHEN、WUZHI、ZHILIHEQINGGANFANGSHIDUIWENHUAHEYISHUDEBIAODA,CONGERTUIDONGQISUOSHUSHEHUIDEFAZHANYUZHUANXING。

                                  星力9代  b. GULITIGONGSHIDANGDEJIHUI:SUIRANGULITIGONGSHIDANGJIHUIDEYAOQIUJUTILIEJUCHUWENHUA、YISHU、YULEHEXIUXIANHUODONG,DANWEIYUANHUIGENJU《GONGYUE》DI4TIAODUIZHEIYITIAOSUOZUODEJIESHIYENARULEYOUXI。YINCI,DIYUEGUOBIXUQUEBAOWEIERTONGDECANYUCHUANGZAOBIYAOHESHIDANGDEXIANJUETIAOJIAN,YITUIDONGHECUJINSHIXIANDI31TIAOZHIXIAQUANLIDEJIHUI。ZHIYOUZAIZHIDINGLEBIYAODELIFA、ZHENGCE、YUSUAN、HUANJINGHEFUWUKUANGJIADEQIANTIXIA,ERTONGCAIKENENGSHIXIANQIQUANLI。

                                    c. TIGONGJUNDENGDEJIHUI:BIXUWEIMEIGEERTONGXIANGYOUDI31TIAOZHIXIADEQUANLITIGONGJUNDENGDEJIHUI。

                                    五.第31条与更广泛的《公约》背景

                                    A.YU《GONGYUE》YIBANYUANZEZHIJIANDELIANXI

                                  星力9代  16.DI2TIAO(BUQISHI):WEIYUANHUIQIANGDIAO,DIYUEGUOYINGCAIQUYIQIESHIDANGCUOSHI,QUEBAOSUOYOUERTONGYOUJIHUISHIXIANQIZAIDI31TIAOZHIXIADEQUANLI,BUSHOURENHEZHONGLEIDEQISHI,BUYINERTONGHUOQIFUMUHUOFADINGJIANHURENDEZHONGZU、FUSE、XINGBIE、YUYAN、ZONGJIAO、ZHENGZHIHUOQITAJIANJIE、MINZU、ZUYIHUOSHEHUICHUSHEN、CAICHAN、SHANGCAN、CHUSHENHUOQITASHENFENERYOURENHECHABIE。YINGYOUQIGUANZHUMOUXIEERTONGQUNTIDEQUANLI,QIZHONGBAOKUONVTONG、CANJIERTONG、ZAIPINKUNHUOWEIXIANHUANJINGZHONGSHENGHUODEERTONG、PINKUNERTONG、CHENGJIAOJIGOU、YILIAOBAOJIANJIGOUHUOSHOURONGJIGOUDEERTONG、CHUYUCHONGTUHUORENDAOZHUYIWEIJICHUJINGDEERTONG、NONGCUNXIAOQUDEERTONG、XUNQIUBIHUHENANMINERTONG、JIETOUERTONG、YOUMUMINZUERTONG、YIXIHUONEIBULIULISHISUOERTONG、TUZHUERTONGHESHAOSHUMINZUERTONG、TONGGONG、WUFUMUDEERTONGYIJIMIANLINJIDAXUEYEYALIDEERTONG。

                                  星力9代  17.DI3TIAO(ERTONGDEZUIDALIYI):WEIYUANHUIQIANGDIAO,YIZHAODINGYI,SHIXIANDI31TIAOZHIXIADEQUANLIFUHEERTONGDEZUIDALIYI。KAOLVERTONGZUIDALIYIDEYIWUSHIYONGYUERTONGGERENJIQITUANTIHUOQUNZU。SUOYOUDELIFA、ZHENGCEHEYUSUANCUOSHIYIJIKENENGYINGXIANGDAODI31TIAOGUIDINGDEQUANLI、SHEJIHUANJINGHUOFUWUGUIDINGDECUOSHIDOUBIXUKAOLVERTONGDEZUIDALIYI。LIRU,ZHEIYITIAOSHIYONGYUSHEJIYIXIAWENTIDEGUIZHANG:JIANKANGHEANQUAN、GUTIFEIQIWUDECHUZHIHESHOUJI、JUZHUHEYUNSHUGUIHUA、CHENGSHIMIANMAODESHEJIHEWUZHANGAIXING、TIGONGGONGYUANHEQITALVDI、QUEDINGXUEXIAOZUOXISHIJIAN、TONGGONGHEJIAOYULIFA、SHISHIGUIHUAHUOZHIDINGYOUGUANHULIANWANGYINSIQUANDEFALVDENG。

                                  星力9代  18.DI6TIAO(SHENGMING、CUNHUOYUFAZHAN):DIYUEGUOBIXUJINZUIDAKENENG,QUEBAOERTONGDESHENGMING、CUNHUOYUFAZHAN。ZAIZHEIFANGMIAN,WEIYUANHUITIQINGZHUYI,BIXURENSHIDAODI31TIAODEBUTONGFANGMIANDUICUJINERTONGFAZHANHETIGAOQINENGLIFAHUIDEJIJIJIAZHI。ZHEIYIDIANYEYIWEIZHEYONGYULUOSHIDI31TIAODECUOSHIYINGFUHESUOYOUNIANLINGERTONGDEFAZHANXUYAO。YOUXIDUIERTONGDEFAZHANFAHUIHEXINZUOYONG,DIYUEGUOYINGBANGZHUJIAZHANG、KANHUREN、ZHENGFUGONGZUORENYUANHESUOYOUCONGSHIERTONGGONGZUODEZHUANYERENYUANTIGAODUIZHEIYIWENTIDERENSHIHELIJIE。

                                    19.DI12TIAO(FABIAOYIJIANQUAN):ZUOWEIDANDUDEGETIHEYIGEQUNTI,ERTONGYOUQUANDUIYINGXIANGTAMENDEYIQIESHIXIANGFABIAOYIJIAN,DUIERTONGDEYIJIANYINGANZHAOQINIANLINGHECHENGSHUCHENGDUJIYISHIDANGDEKANDAI,BIYAOSHIYINGDUIERTONGFABIAOYIJIANJIYUSHIDANGZHICHI。ERTONGZAICONGSHIYOUXIHEYULEHUODONGYIJICANJIAWENHUAHEYISHUHUODONGSHIYOUQUANXUANZEHEFAHUIZIZHUXING。WEIYUANHUIQIANGDIAO,BIXUWEIERTONGTIGONGCUJINZHIDINGFALV、ZHENGCE、ZHANLVEHESHEJIFUWUDEJIHUI,YIQUEBAOLVXINGDI31TIAOZHIXIADEQUANLI。LIRU,ERTONGZAIZHEIFANGMIANDEGONGXIANKEBAOKUOCANYUSHEJIYIXIAWENTIDECUOSHANG:YUYOUXIHEYULEXIANGGUANDEZHENGCE、YINGXIANGSHOUJIAOYUQUAN、XUEXIAOJIAGOUJIKECHENGSHEZHIDEFALVHUOYUTONGGONGXIANGGUANDEBAOHUXINGFALV、JIANSHEGONGYUANHEQITADIFANGSHESHI、CHENGSHIGUIHUAHESHEJIDUIERTONGYOUHAODEXIAOQUYUHUANJING,HAIKEXIANGERTONGLEJIETAMENDUIXUEXIAOHEGENGGUANGFANDEXIAOQUTIGONGDEYOUXIHUOYULEJIWENHUAHUODONGDENGJIHUIDEHUIKUIYIJIAN。4

                                    B.YUQITAXIANGGUANQUANLIZHIJIANDELIANXI

                                    20.DI13TIAO:YANLUNZIYOUQUANSHIZIYOUCANJIAWENHUAHEYISHUHUODONGQUANDEJIBENNEIRONG。ERTONGYOUQUANYITAMENXUANZEDERENHEFANGSHIBIAODAZIWO,JINZAIBIYAOSHISHOUDAOFALVGUIDINGDEXIANZHI,YIQUEBAOZUNZHONGTARENDEQUANLIHEMINGYUYIJIBAOHUGUOJIAANQUANHUOGONGGONGZHIXUHUOGONGGONGWEISHENGHUODAODE。

                                    21.DI15TIAO:ERTONGYOUQUANXUANZEPENGYOU,YEYOUQUANCANJIASHEHUI、WENHUA、YUNDONGHEQITAXINGSHIDEZUZHI。JIESHEDEZIYOUSHIQIZAIDI31TIAOZHIXIAXIANGYOUQUANLIDEYIGEZUCHENGBUFEN,YINWEIERTONGKEYITONGCHUANGZAOZAICHENGRENHEERTONGZHIJIANHENNANJINXINGDEGEZHONGXINGSHIDEXIANGXIANGYOUXI。ERTONGXUYAOYUTONGXINGHEYIXINGDEHUOBANYIJIYUYONGYOUBUTONGNENGLI、LAIZIBUTONGJIECENG、WENHUAHENIANLINGBUTONGDEHUOBANXIANGCHU,YIBIANXUEXIHEZUO、RONGREN、FENXIANGHESUIJIYINGBIAN。YOUXIHEYULEWEIJIECHENGYOUYICHUANGZAOJIHUI,NENGGOUZAIJIAQIANGGONGMINSHEHUI、CUJINERTONGDESHEHUI、DAODEHEQINGGANFAZHAN、SUZAOWENHUAYUJIANSHEXIAOQUDENGFANGMIANFAHUIGUANJIANZUOYONG。DIYUEGUOBIXUJIAQIANGTIGONGJIHUI,SHIERTONGNENGGOUZAIXIAOQUCENGMIANYUTAMENDEHUOBANZIYOUXIANGCHU。DIYUEGUOHAIBIXUZUNZHONGHEZHICHIERTONGSHELI、JIARUHELIKAISHETUANDEQUANLIYIJIHEPINGJIHUIDEQUANLI。RANER,JUEBUYINGQIANGPOERTONGCANJIAHUOJIARUZUZHI。

                                  星力9代  22.DI17TIAO:ERTONGYOUQUANHUODEKEDAILAISHEHUIHEWENHUASHOUYI、LAIZIBUTONGXIAOQU、GUOJIAHEGUOJILAIYUANDEXINXIHESHUJU。HUODEZHEILEIXINXIHESHUJUDUITAMENSHIXIANCHONGFENCANYUWENHUAHEYISHUHUODONGDEQUANLIZHIGUANZHONGYAO。GULIDIYUEGUOQUEBAOTONGGUOBUTONGMEITI,JINKENENGDIWEIERTONGGUANGFANTIGONGYUQIZISHENWENHUAHEQITAWENHUAXIANGGUANDEXINXIHESHUJU,SHIYONGTAMENLIJIEDEYUYAN,BAOKUOSHOUYUHEMANGWEN,YUNXUBANQUANFAJIYUTELI,YIBIANQUEBAOYIQITAXINGSHITIGONGYINSHUASHUJU。TONGSHIBIXURENZHENBAOHUHEBAOLIUWENHUADUOYANGXING,BIMIANWENHUAPIANJIAN。

                                    23.DI22TIAO:NANMINERTONGHEXUNQIUBIHUERTONGZAISHIXIANDI31TIAOZHIXIADEQUANLIFANGMIANMIANLINSHENKETIAOZHAN,YINWEITAMENCHANGCHANGZAIJINGSHOUZISHENDECHUANTONGYUWENHUACUOWEIDETONGSHISHOUDAODONGDAOGUOWENHUADEPAICHI。BIXUNULIQUEBAONANMINHEXUNQIUBIHUERTONGYONGYOUYUDONGDAOGUOERTONGJUNDENGDEJIHUI,YIXIANGYOUDI31TIAOGUIDINGDEQUANLI。HAIBIXURENSHIDAO,NANMINERTONGYOUQUANBAOLIUHESHIJIANZIJIDEYULE、WENHUAHEYISHUCHUANTONG。

                                    24.DI23TIAO:BIXUXIANGCANJIERTONGTIGONGWUZHANGAIHEBAORONGXINGDEHUANJINGYUSHESHI,5SHITAMENNENGGOUXIANGYOUZAIDI31TIAOZHIXIADEQUANLI。JIATING、KANHURENHEZHUANYERENYUANBIXURENSHIDAOJUYOUBAORONGXINGDEYOUXIDEJIAZHI,TAJISHICANJIERTONGDEQUANLI,YESHIQISHIXIANZUIYOUFAZHANDESHOUDUAN。DIYUEGUOYINGCUJINWEICANJIERTONGTIGONGJIHUI,SHIQIPINGDENGHEJIJIDICANYUYOUXI、YULEHEWENHUAYUYISHUSHENGHUO,FANGFABAOKUOTIGAOCHENGRENHECANJIERTONGHUOBANDERENSHI,YIJITIGONGYUQINIANLINGXIANGYIDEZHICHIHUOYUANZHU。

                                  星力9代  25.DI24TIAO:SHIXIANDI31TIAOGUIDINGDEQUANLIBUJINKECUJINERTONGDEJIANKANG、FUZHIHEFAZHAN,ERQIEYOUGUANSHENGBINGHE/HUOZHUYUANERTONGXIANGYOUDI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLIDESHIDANGGUIDINGKEDUICUJINERTONGKANGFUFAHUIZHONGYAOZUOYONG。

                                  星力9代  26.DI27TIAO:SHENGHUOSHUIPINGBUZU、BUANQUANHUOGUOYUYONGJIDETIAOJIAN、BUANQUANHEBUWEISHENGDEHUANJING、SHIWUBUZU、QIANGPOCONGSHIYOUHAIHUOBOXUEXINGGONGZUO,SHANGSHUZHEIXIEQINGKUANGDOUXIANZHIHUOBODUOLEERTONGXIANGYOUDI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLIDEJIHUI。GULIDIYUEGUOZAIZHIDINGYOUGUANERTONG,YOUQISHIZAIZIJIJIAZHONGMEIYOUJIHUIYOUXIHEYULEDEERTONGDESHEHUIBAOHU、JIUYE、ZHUFANGHESHIYONGGONGGONGCHANGSUODEZHENGCESHI,KAOLVZHEIXIEZHENGCEDUIDI31TIAOZHIXIAERTONGQUANLIDEYINGXIANG。

                                    27.DI28HE29TIAO:JIAOYUBIXUYIZAIZUIDACHENGDUSHANGFAZHANERTONGDEGEXING、CAIZHIHESHENXINNENGLIWEIDAOXIANG。SHIXIANDI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLIDUIZUNSHOUDI29TIAOSUOZAIQUANLIZHIGUANZHONGYAO。ERTONGYAOFAHUIZUIDAQIANLI,XUYAOWENHUAHEYISHUFAZHANYIJICANJIAYUNDONGHEJINGSAIDEJIHUI。WEIYUANHUIHAIQIANGDIAO,DI31TIAOZHIXIADEQUANLINENGGOUSHIERTONGDEJIAOYUFAZHANHUODEJIJISHOUYI;BAORONGJIAOYUHEJUYOUBAORONGXINGDEYOUXIXIANGFUXIANGCHENG,YINGZAIYOUJIAO(XUEQIAN)YIJIZAIXIAOXUEHEZHONGXUEJIEDUANDEMEIYITIANZHONGWEIZHEILEIJIAOYUHEYOUXITIGONGBIANLI。SUIRANYOUXIDUISUOYOUNIANLINGDEERTONGDOUHENZHONGYAOHEBIYAO,DANZAIJIUXUEDEQIANJINIANYOUQIJUYOUZHONGYAOYIYI。YANJIUBIAOMING,YOUXISHIERTONGXUEXIDEZHONGYAOFANGSHI。

                                    28.DI30TIAO:YINGGULILAIZIZUYI、ZONGJIAOHUOYUYANSHAOSHUQUNTIDEERTONGXIANGSHOUHECANYUZIJIDEWENHUAHUODONG。DIYUEGUOYINGZUNZHONGLAIZISHAOSHUQUNTIDEERTONGJITUZHUERTONGDEWENHUATEXING,QUEBAOJIYUTAMENYULAIZIDUOSHUQUNTIERTONGJUNDENGDEQUANLI,SHITAMENNENGGOUCANJIAFANYINGQIZISHENDEYUYAN、ZONGJIAOHEWENHUADEWENHUAYUYISHUHUODONG。

                                    29.DI32TIAO:WEIYUANHUIZHUYIDAO,ZAIXUDUOGUOJIA,YIXIEERTONGCONGSHIFANZHONGDEGONGZUO,DAOZHITAMENBEIBODUOLEZAIDI31TIAOZHIXIADEQUANLI。CIWAI,YOUSHUBAIWANERTONGZAIZHENGGETONGNIANSHIDAIDEDABUFENSHIJIANZHONGYUQIJIARENYIYANGDANRENJIATINGGONGRENHUOCONGSHIBUWEIXIANDEGONGZUO,DEBUDAOCHONGFENDEXIUXIHUOJIAOYU。GEGUOBIXUCAIQUYIQIEBIYAOCUOSHIBAOHUSUOYOUTONGGONG,SHITAMENMIANSHOUQINFANQIZAIDI31TIAOZHIXIAQUANLIDEDAIYU。

                                  星力9代  30.DI19TIAO、DI34TIAO、DI37TIAOHEDI38TIAO:BAOLI、XINGBOXUE、YIFEIFAHUORENYISHOUDUANBODUOZIYOUYIJIQIANGPOZAIWUZHUANGCHONGTUZHONGFUYIDENGQINGKUANGYANZHONGZUAI,SHENZHIWANQUANBODUOLEERTONGXIANGYOUYOUXI、YULEHECANJIAWENHUASHENGHUOYUYISHUHUODONGDENENGLI。SHOUDAOQITAERTONGDEQIFUYEKENENGCHENGWEIXIANGYOUDI31TIAOZHIXIAQUANLIDEZHUYAOZUAIYINSU。DIYUEGUOZHIYOUCAIQUYIQIEBIYAOCUOSHI,BAOHUERTONGMIANYUZAOSHOUZHEILEIXINGWEI,CAIKENENGSHIXIANSHANGSHUQUANLI。

                                    31.DI39TIAO:DIYUEGUOYINGQUEBAOWEIZAOSHOUHUSHI、BOXUE、NVEDAIHUOQITABAOLIXINGSHIDEERTONGTIGONGKANGFUHEZHONGFANSHEHUIFANGMIANDEZHICHI。ERTONGDEJINGLI,BAOKUONEIXIETONGKUHESHIZHISHOUDAOSHANGHAIDEJINGLIKETONGGUOYOUXIHUOYISHUBIAOXIANXINGSHICHUANDA。TIGONGSHIXIANDI31TIAOZHIXIAQUANLIDEJIHUIKEZUOWEIYIZHONGZHONGYAOFANGSHI,ERTONGKETONGGUOZHEIZHONGFANGSHIBIAODACHUANGSHANGHUOTONGKUDERENSHENGJINGLI,YILIJIEQIGUOQU,BINGGENGHAODIYINGDUIWEILAI。YOUXIHEYISHUBIAODANENGGOUSHITAMENTONGGUOYIZHONGZIRAN、ZIWOYINDAOHEZIWOZHILIAODEGUOCHENG,CHUANDAHEGENGHAODILIJIETAMENZISHENDEGANSHOUHEXIANGFA,YUFANGHUOJIEJUEJINGSHENWENTI,BINGXUEXIGUANLIRENJIGUANXIHECHONGTU。

                                    六.为实现第31条创造条件

                                    A.ZUIJIAHUANJINGDEYAOSU

                                    32.ERTONGYONGYOUDUIYOUXIHECANJIAYULEHUODONGDEZIFAKEQIU,JISHISHIZAIZUIWEIELIEDEHUANJINGZHONGYEHUIXUNZHAOJIHUIJINXINGZHEILEIHUODONG。DANSHI,YAOSHIERTONGNENGGOUZAIZUIDACHENGDUSHANGSHIXIANQIZAIDI31TIAOZHIXIADEQUANLI,YOUBIYAOGENJUERTONGBUDUANFAZHANDENENGLI,QUEBAOTIGONGMOUXIETIAOJIAN。ZHENGYINWEIRUCI,ERTONGYINGYONGYOU:

                                  星力9代  • BUSHOUYALISHUFUDEZIYOU;

                                    • MIANSHOUSHEHUIPAICHI、PIANJIANHUOQISHIDEZIYOU;

                                    • MIANSHOUSHEHUISHANGHAIHUOBAOLIDEANQUANDEHUANJING;

                                  星力9代  • ZUYIBIMIANLANGFEI、WURAN、JIAOTONGZUSAIHEQITAWUZHIWEIXIANDEHUANJING,SHITAMENNENGGOUZAIZIJIDEDANGDIJIEQUNEIZIYOUHEANQUANDIXINGDONG;

                                    • YUQINIANLINGHEFAZHANXIANGSHIYIDEXIUXI;

                                    • BUSHOUQITAMINGLINGYUESHUDEXIANXIASHIJIAN;

                                  星力9代  • YONGYUYOUXI、BUSHOUCHENGRENKONGZHIHEGUANLIDEKONGJIANHESHIJIAN;

                                    • ZAIDUOYANGHUAHEJUYOUTIAOZHANXINGDEHUWAIWULIHUANJINGZHONGWURENPEIBANJINXINGYOUXIDEKONGJIANHEJIHUI,BINGQIEZAIBIYAOSHIKEBIANJIEDIXUNQIUCHENGRENZHICHI;

                                  星力9代  • GANSHOUZIRANHUANJINGHEDONGWUSHIJIE、YUZHEILEIHUANJINGHESHIJIEJIAOLIU,ZAIQIZHONGYOUXIDEJIHUI;

                                    • TOUSHENYUZIJIDEKONGJIANHESHIJIANDEJIHUI,CONGERLIYONGQIXIANGXIANGHEYUYANCHUANGZAOHEGAIBIANQISHIJIE;

                                    • TANSUOHELIJIEQIXIAOQUWENHUAYUYISHUYICHAN、CANYU、CHUANGZAOHESUZAOZHEIYIYICHANDEJIHUI;

                                    • YUQITAERTONGYIDAOCANJIAJINGSAI、TIYUYUNDONGHEQITAYULEHUODONG,ZAIBIYAOSHIDEDAOJINGGUOPEIXUNDEPEIXUNSHIHUOJIAOLIANZHICHIDEJIHUI;

                                    • JIAZHANG、JIAOSHIHESHEHUIZUOWEIYIGEZHENGTICHENGRENDI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLIDEJIAZHIYUHELIXING。

                                  星力9代  B.SHIXIANDI31TIAOXUYINGDUIDETIAOZHAN

                                    33.YOUXIHEYULEDEZHONGYAOXINGDEBUDAORENKE:ZAISHIJIEXUDUODIFANG,YOUXIBEISHIWEIMEIYOURENHENEIZAIJIAZHI、BEIYONGYUWUYIYIHUOWUCHANCHUHUODONGDE“KUISUN”SHIJIAN。JIAZHANG、KANHURENHEGONGWURENYUANTONGCHANGGENGJIAZHONGSHIXUEXIHUOJINGJIGONGZUO,ERFEIYOUXI,YINWEICHANGCHANGRENWEIYOUXICHAONAO、ANGZANG、YOUPOHUAIXINGBINGLINGRENFANGAN。CIWAI,CHENGRENCHANGCHANGQUEFAZHICHIERTONGYOUXIBINGQIEYIWANSHUADEFANGSHIYUERTONGJINXINGJIAOLIUDEXINXIN,JINENGHUOZHISHI。BULUNSHIERTONGCANJIAYOUXIHEYULEDEQUANLI,HAISHIZHEIXIEHUODONGDUIERTONGDEFUZHI、JIANKANGHEFAZHANFAHUIDEGENBENZHONGYAOYIYI,DOUDEBUDAOLIJIEERQIESHOUDAOBIANDI。LIRU,DANGYOUXIDEDAORENKESHI,TONGCHANGYAOQIUSHENTIHUODONGDEYOUXIHEJINGJIBISAI(TIYUYUNDONG)BIHUANXIANGHUOSHEHUIXIJUGENGSHOUZHONGSHI。WEIYUANHUIQIANGDIAO,JINYIBURENKENIANZHANGYIXIEDEERTONGPIANAIDEYOUXIHEYULEDEXINGSHIYUDIDIANYOUWEIZHONGYAO。QINGSHAONIANJINGCHANGXUNZHAOYIXIEDIDIANYUHUOBANJIANMIAN,TANSUOQIZHENGZAIXINGCHENGDEDULIXINGBINGXIANGCHENGNIANGUODU。ZHEISHIPEIYANGRENTONGHEGUISHUGANDEYIGEZHONGYAOFANGMIAN。

                                  星力9代  34.BUANQUANHEWEIXIANDEHUANJING:YINGXIANGDI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLIDEHUANJINGTEZHENGJIKENENGCHENGWEIERTONGJIANKANG、FAZHANHEANQUANDEBAOHUYINSU,YEKENENGCHENGWEIFENGXIANYINSU。JIUJIAONIANYOUDEERTONGERYAN,ZAIWEITAMENTIGONGTANSUOHECHUANGZAOXINGJIHUIDEKONGJIANDETONGSHI,YINGNENGGOUSHIQIFUMUHEKANHURENBAOCHIDUITAMENDEJIANDU,BAOKUOTONGGUOMUSHIHEYUYANJIAOLIUDEFANGFA。ERTONGXUYAOJINRUJUYOUBAORONGXINGDEHUODONGKONGJIAN,BIMIANBUZHENGDANGWEIXIAN,BINGQIEKONGJIANJIEJINQIZHUSUO;SUIZHETAMENNENGLIDEBIANHUA,XUYAOCAIQUCUJINQIANQUANHEDULIXINGDONGDECUOSHI。

                                    35.SHIJIESHANGDADUOSHUPINKUNERTONGMIANLINWUZHIWEIXIANYINSU,RUWURANDESHUIYUAN;KAIFANGDEPAIWUXITONG;GUOYUYONGJIDECHENGSHI;BUSHOUGUANZHIDEJIAOTONG;JIETOUZHAOMINGBUZUHEJIEDAOYONGJI;GONGGONGJIAOTONGBUZU;QUEFAANQUANDEDANGDIYOUXIDIDAI、LVDIHEWENHUASHESHI;CHUYUWEIXIAN、BAOLIHUOYOUDUHUANJINGZHONGDEFEIZHENGSHICHENGSHI“PINMINKU”DENG。ZAICHONGTUHOUHUANJINGZHONG,ERTONGYEKENENGSHOUDAODILEIHEWEIBAOZHADANYAODESHANGHAI。DEQUE,ERTONGMIANLINDEFENGXIANYOUWEIYANZHONG,YIFANGMIANSHIYINWEITAMENTIANSHENGDEHAOQIXINHETANSUOYOUXIJIADALEFASHENGWEIXIANDEKENENGXING,LINGYIFANGMIANSHIYINWEIBAOZHADUIERTONGDEYINGXIANGGENGWEIYANZHONG。

                                  星力9代  36.ZONGHEDERENWEIYINSUYEKENENGSHIERTONGZAIGONGGONGHUANJINGZHONGMIANLINFENGXIAN,ZHEIXIEYINSUBAOKUO:JIAODUODEFANZUIHEBAOLISHIJIAN;XIAOQUBUANDINGHENEIZHAN;YUDUPINHEBANGPAIXIANGGUANDEBAOLI;BANGJIAHEFANYUNERTONGDEFENGXIAN;YOUYOUDIYIDEQINGNIANHUOCHENGNIANRENZHANJUDEKAIFANGKONGJIAN;DUINVTONGDEQINHAIHEXINGBAOLI。JISHICUNZAIGONGYUAN、YOUXICHANGSUO、YUNDONGSHESHIHEQITACHANGSUO,DANZHEIXIECHANGSUOSUOCHUWEIZHIJINGCHANGSHIERTONGMIANLINFENGXIAN、DEBUDAOJIANSHI、BEIBAOLUZAIWEIXIANZHIZHONG。SUOYOUZHEIXIEYINSUZAOCHENGDEWEIXIANYANZHONGXIANZHIERTONGANQUANYOUXIHEYULEDEJIHUI。CHUANTONGSHANGWEIERTONGTIGONGDEXUDUOKONGJIANRIJIANSHOUDAOQINSHI,YINCIXUYAOZHENGFUDEGENGDUOGANYU,YIBAOHUDI31TIAOZHIXIADEQUANLI。

                                  星力9代  37.JUCHIERTONGSHIYONGGONGGONGKONGJIAN:GONGGONGDIDAIDERIJIANSHANGYEHUAHEJIANGERTONGPAICHIZAIWAI,YEZUAILEERTONGSHIYONGGONGGONGKONGJIANJINXINGYOUXI、YULEHEZIJIDEWENHUAHUODONG。CIWAI,ZAISHIJIEDEXUDUODIFANG,GONGGONGCHANGSUODUIERTONGDERONGRENDUZHUJIANXIAJIANG。LIRU:DUIERTONGSHIXINGXIAOJIN;ZAIXIAOQUHEGONGYUANSHEZHIMENJIN;JIANGDIZAOYINRONGRENDU;YOUXICHANGSUOGUIDINGYANGEDE“KEJIESHOUDE”YOUXIXINGWEIGUIZE;SHEZHIJINRUSHANGCHANGDEXIANZHIDENGXIANXIANG,XINGCHENGLEYIZHONGJIANGERTONGSHIWEI“WENTI”HE/HUOFANZUIZHEDEGAINIAN。DALIANGDEMEITIFUMIANBAODAOHEMEITIJIGOUYOUQIJIANGQINGSHAONIANGUANGFANSHIWEIYIZHONGWEIXIE,BUGULITAMENSHIYONGGONGGONGKONGJIAN。

                                    38.PAICHIERTONGDEXINGWEIDUITAMENZUOWEIGONGMINDEFAZHANCHANSHENGZHONGYAOYINGXIANG。BUTONGNIANLINGDUANDECHENGYUANGONGXIANGBAORONGDEGONGGONGKONGJIANDETIYANKECUJINHEJIAQIANGGONGMINSHEHUI,GULIERTONGRENSHIDAOZIJISHIXIANGYOUQUANLIDEGONGMIN。GULIDIYUEGUOCUJINJIAONIANZHANGHEJIAONIANQINGDEJIDAIRENZHIJIANDEDUIHUA,YIGULIJINYIBURENSHIDAOERTONGSHIQUANLISUOYOUZHE,GEDIFANGHUOCHENGZHENTIGONGGEZHONGXIAOQUKONGJIANWANGLUOYIMANZUSUOYOUERTONGYOUXIHEYULEDEXUYAO,ZHEIYIDIANZHIGUANZHONGYAO。

                                    39.PINGHENGFENGXIANYUANQUAN:YINWEIHAIPAERTONGZAIDANGDIHUANJINGZHONGMIANLINWUZHIHERENWEIFENGXIAN,DAOZHISHIJIEYIXIEDIFANGTIGAOLEJIANCEHEJIANSHIDECHENGDU,JIEGUOSHIERTONGYOUXIDEZIYOUHEYULEDEJIHUISHOUDAOXIANZHI。CIWAI,ERTONGBENSHENYEKENENGZAIYOUXIHEYULEHUODONGZHONGDUIQITAERTONGGOUCHENGWEIXIE,LIRU:QIFU、JIAONIANZHANGDEERTONGNVEDAIXIAOHAI,YIJICANJIAGAOFENGXIANHUODONGDEQUNTIYALIDENG。SUIRANERTONGZAISHIXIANDI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLISHIBUYINGSHOUDAOSHANGHAI,DANYIDINGCHENGDUDEFENGXIANHETIAOZHANSHIYOUXIHEYULEHUODONGDEZUCHENGYINSU,YESHIZHEILEIHUODONGCHANSHENGSHOUYIDEBIYAOYAOSU,XUYAODACHENGYIZHONGPINGHENG,YIFANGMIANYINGCAIQUXINGDONGJIANSHAOERTONGSUOCHUHUANJINGZHONGBUKEJIESHOUDEWEIXIANYINSU,RUXIAOQUDEJIEDAOYINGJINZHIJIDONGCHETONGXING,GAISHANJIEDAOZHAOMINGHUOHUADINGXUEXIAOYOUXICHANGSUODEANQUANJIEXIAN,LINGYIFANGMIANYINGGAOZHI、BANGZHUHEFUCHIERTONGCAIQUBIYAODEYUFANGCUOSHI,YIJIAQIANGQIZISHENANQUAN。ERTONGDEZUIDALIYIJITINGQUERTONGDEJINGYANHEGUANQIEWENTIYINGZUOWEIQUEDINGERTONGKECHENGDANDEFENGXIANCHENGDUDEXIEDIAOYUANZE。

                                  星力9代  40.WUFAQINJINZIRAN:ERTONGTONGGUOQINJINZIRAN、ZIWOYINDAODEYOUXI、YUCHENGRENYIDAOTANSUOZIRAN、CONGCHENGNIANRENNEILILEJIEDAOZIRANDEQIJIHEZHONGYAOYIYI,JINERXUEHUILIJIE、XINSHANGHEAIHUZIRANJIE。TONGNIANSHIDAIZAIDAZIRANZHONGXIXIHEXIUXIANDEJIYINENGGOUJIAQIANGTAMENDEYINGBIANNENGLI,TAMENKELIYONGZHEIZHONGNENGLIYINGDUIYALI、CONGJINGSHENSHANGJIFADUIDIQIUDEZANTAN,GULIQIAIHUDIQIUDEZERENGAN。ZAIZIRANHUANJINGZHONGYOUXIHAIYOUZHUYUTIGAOLINGHUOXING、PINGHENGGAN、CHUANGZAOXING、SHEHUIHEZUOYUZHUANZHUDENENGLI。TONGGUOYUANYI、SHOUGE、QINGZHUYISHIHEJINGSIDENGXINGSHIYUZIRANJIELIANXISHIXUDUOGUOJIAWENHUAYISHUHEYICHANDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN。ZAICHENGSHIHUAHESIYINGHUARIYIYANZHONGDESHIJIEZHONG,ERTONGJIECHUGONGYUAN、HUAYUAN、SENLIN、HAITANHEQITAZIRANCHANGSUODEJIHUIZHENGZAISHOUDAOQINSHI,ZAIDISHOURUCHENGSHIDIQUSHENGHUODEERTONGZUIYOUKENENGWUFACHONGFENJIECHULVDI。

                                    41.XUEYECHENGJIDEYALI:ZAISHIJIEXUDUODIFANG,YINWEIQIANGDIAOZHENGSHIXUEYEQUDECHENGGONG,XUDUOERTONGBEIBODUOLEDI31TIAOZHIXIADEQUANLI。LIRU:

                                  星力9代  • ZAOQIYOUERJIAOYUYUELAIYUEZHUZHONGXUEYEMUBIAOHEZHENGGUIXUEXI,DAOZHIYOUXISHIJIANJIANSHAO,ZUAISHIXIANGENGQUANMIANDEFAZHAN;

                                    • KEWAIJIAOXUEHEJIATINGZUOYEDAOZHIERTONGJINXINGZIYOUXUANZEDEHUODONGDESHIJIANJIANSHAO;

                                  星力9代  • KECHENGANPAIHERICHENGBIAOCHANGCHANGTIXIANCHUDUIYOUXI、YULEHEXIUXIDEBIYAOXINGRENSHIBUZUHUOTIGONGDEZHEILEIHUODONGBUZUDEWENTI;

                                    • ZAIKETANGSHANGSHIYONGZHENGSHIHUOSHUOJIAOSHIDEJIAOYUFANGFA,MEIYOULIYONGZHUDONGZAIYOUXIZHONGXUEXIDEJIHUI;

                                  星力9代  • XUDUOXUEXIAOJIANSHAOLEERTONGYUDAZIRANJIECHUDEJIHUI,ERTONGYOUYUELAIYUEDUODESHIJIANBUDEBUZAISHINEIHUODONG;

                                  星力9代  • ZAIYOUXIEGUOJIA,YINXUESHUKECHENGZENGJIA,XUEXIAOTIGONGDEWENHUAHEYISHUHUODONGDEJIHUIJIZHUANMENDEMEISHULAOSHIZHENGZAIERJIANSHAO;

                                  星力9代  • DUIERTONGNENGGOUZAIXUEXIAOJINXINGDEYOUXIZHONGLEIDEXIANZHIZUAILETAMENFAHUICHUANGZAOXING、TANSUOHEFAZHANSHEHUINENGLIDEJIHUI。

                                    42.GUOYUYOUZUZHIHEYOUJIHUADERICHENG:DUIYUXUDUOERTONGERYAN,SHIXIANDI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLIDENENGLIYINWEICHENGRENJUEDINGBINGQIANGJIAYUTAMENDEHUODONGERSHOUDAOXIANZHI,LIRU,QIANGZHIYUNDONG,CANJIERTONGDEKANGFUHUODONGHUOJIAZHONGDEZAHUO(YOUQISHINVTONG),DAOZHIERTONGMEIYOUHUOJIHUMEIYOUSHIJIANJINXINGZIJIZHUDAODEHUODONG。ZAISHEJIZHENGFUTOUZIDEQINGKUANGXIA,TOUZITONGCHANGZHONGDIANTOURUYOUZUZHIDEJINGJIYULEHUODONG,YOUSHIERTONGBEIYAOQIUHUOPOYUYALICANJIABUSHITAMENZIJIXUANZEDEQINGNIANZUZHI。ERTONGYOUQUANXIANGYOUBUSHOUCHENGRENJUEDINGHUOKONGZHIDESHIJIAN,YIJIKEBUZUNSHOURENHEMINGLINGDESHIJIAN,YEJIUSHISHUO,RUGUOTAMENYUANYI,ZAIZHEIGESHIJIANLIKE“SHENMEDOUBUZUO”。JUTIERYAN,BUCANYUHUODONGNENGGOUJIFACHUANGZAOXING。XIAAIDIJIANGERTONGDESUOYOUXIUXIANSHIJIANYONGYUYOUJIHUADEHUODONGHUOJINGSAIHUODONGKENENGYOUSUNYUERTONGDESHENGLI、QINGGAN、RENZHIHESHEHUINENGLIDELIANGHAOFAZHAN。6

                                    43.FAZHANJIHUAHUSHIDI31TIAO:XUDUOGUOJIADEYOUERKANHUHEFAZHANGONGZUOJINJINZHUZHONGERTONGSHENGCUNDEWENTI,WANQUANBUGUANZHUNENGGOUSHIERTONGZHUOZHUANGCHENGZHANGDETIAOJIAN。ZHEIFANGMIANDEFANGANWANGWANGJINSHEJIYINGYANG、MIANYIHEXUEQIANJIAOYU,JISHAOHUOWANQUANBUZHONGSHIYOUXI、YULE、WENHUAHEYISHUHUODONG。SHISHIZHEILEIFANGANDEGONGZUORENYUANMEIYOUJIESHOUGUOYOUGUANDUIERTONGZHEIXIEFANGMIANDEFAZHANXUYAOTIGONGZHICHIDEPEIXUN。

                                    44.QUEFAWEIERTONGWENHUAHEYISHUHUODONGDETOUZI:ERTONGJIECHUWENHUAHEYISHUHUODONGDEJIHUICHANGCHANGSHOUDAORUOGANYINSUDEXIANZHI,BAOKUOQUEFAJIAZHANGDEZHICHI;CANJIAHUODONGDEFEIYONG;QUEFAJIAOTONGFANGSHI;XUDUOZHANLAN、XIJUHEHUODONGYICHENGRENWEIZHONGXIN;TIGONGDEHUODONGNEIRONG、SHEJI、DIDIANHEXINGSHIMEIYOUERTONGCANYU。YOUBIYAOJINYIBUQIANGDIAOTIGONGJIFACHUANGZAOXINGDEKONGJIAN。YISHUHEWENHUACHANGSUODEJINGYINGZHEYINGCHAOYUESHIJIKONGJIANKANDAISHIWU,KAOLVTAMENDEFANGANKERUHETIXIANHEXIANGYINGQISUODAIBIAOXIAOQUDEWENHUASHENGHUO。YAOSHIERTONGCANJIAYISHUHUODONG,JIUXUYAOYIZHONGGENGJIAYIERTONGWEIZHONGXINDEFANGZHEN,ZHUANMENWEITUOERTONGCHUANGZUOBINGZHANSHITAMENDEZUOPIN,YIJIXISHOUERTONGCANYUHUODONGDEZUZHIYUJIHUA。ZAIERTONGSHIDAICANYUZHEILEIHUODONGKENENGJIFAYISHENGDUIWENHUADEXINGQU。

                                    45.DIANZIMEITIDEZUOYONGRIYITIGAO:SHIJIESUOYOUDIQUDEERTONGZHENGZAITONGGUOGEZHONGSHUZIPINGTAIHEMEITI,YONGYUELAIYUEDUODESHIJIAN、TONGSHIZUOWEIXIAOFEIZHEHECHUANGZUOZHECANJIAYOUXI、YULE、WENHUAHEYISHUHUODONG,BAOKUOKANDIANSHI、FASONGXINXI、TONGGUOSHEHUIWANGLUOGOUTONG、YOUXI、FABUWENBEN、TINGYINLEHECHUANGZUOYINLE、GUANKANHEZHIZUOSHIPINHEDIANYING、CHUANGZAOXINDEYISHUXINGSHI、ZHANGTIETUXIANGDENG。XINXIHETONGXINJISHUZHENGZAICHENGWEIERTONGRICHANGSHENGHUODEYIGEHEXINZUCHENGBUFEN。RUJINDEERTONGZAIXIANSHIHEWANGLUOSHIJIEZHIJIANZIYOUWANGLAI。ZHEILEIPINGTAIZAIJIAOYU、SHEHUIHEWENHUADENGGEGEFANGMIANTIGONGLEDALIANGSHOUYI,GULIGEGUOCAIQUYIQIEBIYAOCUOSHI,QUEBAOSUOYOUERTONGYONGYOUJUNDENGJIHUITIHUIZHEIXIESHOUYI。JIERUHULIANWANGHESHEHUIMEITISHIZAIQUANQIUHUADEHUANJINGZHONGSHIXIANDI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLIDEGUANJIAN。

                                    46.RANER,WEIYUANHUIBIAOSHIGUANQIEDESHI,YOUYUELAIYUEDUODEZHENGJUBIAOMING,ZHEILEIHUANJINGYIJIERTONGYUZHEILEIHUANJINGJIECHUHUAFEIDESHIJIANYEYOUKENENGSHIERTONGMIANLINYANZHONGFENGXIANHESHANGHAI。7LIRU:

                                    • JIECHUHULIANWANGHESHEHUIMEITISHIERTONGMIANLINWANGLUOQILING、SEQINGZHIPINHEWANGLUOYOUGUAIDENGFENGXIAN。XUDUOERTONGJIARUWANGBA、JISUANJIJULEBUHEYOUXITINGMEIYOUCHONGFENDEJINRUXIANZHI,HUOMEIYOUYOUXIAODEJIANGUANZHIDU;

                                  星力9代  • ZHUYAOYOUNANHAICANJIADEYUELAIYUEDUODEBAOLIDIANZIYOUXISIHUYUJINGONGXINGWEIYOUGUANXI,YINWEIZHEILEIYOUXIFEICHANGXIYINREN,HUDONGCHENGDUHENGAO,BINGJIANGLIBAOLIXINGWEI。ERTONGYIBANFANFUWANZHEILEIYOUXI,JIAQIANGLEFUMIANXUEXI,JIEGUOKENENGDAOZHIJIANGDIDUITARENSUOSHOUTENGTONGHESHANGHAIDEMINGANXING,YIJIZHUZHANGDUITARENDEJINGONGHUOSHANGHAIXINGWEI。YUELAIYUEDUODEZAIXIANYOUXIJIHUIKENENGSHIERTONGZAIMEIYOUGUOLVPINGZHANGHUOBAOHUDEQINGKUANGXIAJIECHUDAOQUANQIUSHIYONGZHEWANGLUO,ZHEIYESHILINGRENGUANQIEDEYUANYOUZHIYI。

                                    • XUDUOMEITI,YOUQISHIZHULIUDIANSHITAIWEINENGFANYINGCHUZHENGGESHEHUIZHONGCUNZAIDEGEZHONGWENHUASUOYONGYOUDEYUYAN、WENHUAJIAZHIGUANHECHUANGZAOXING。ZHEIZHONGDANYIWENHUASHIJIAOBUJINXIANZHISUOYOUERTONGCONGKENENGTIGONGDEGUANGFANDEWENHUAHUODONGZHONGHUOYI,HAIKENENGQIANGHUAYIZHONGBIANDIFEIZHULIUWENHUAJIAZHIDEKANFA。DIANSHIHAIDAOZHIXUDUOERTONGYOUXI,GEQU、CHUANTONGSHANGZAIJIETOUHEYOUXICHANGSUOYOUYIDAIRENCHUANJILINGYIDAIRENDEGEYAODIUSHI;

                                  星力9代  • YOURENRENWEI,ERTONGHUODONGDUIPINGMUDEYILAIYUELAIYUEDUO,DAOZHIERTONGDETILIHUODONGCHENGDUJIANGDI、SHUIJUEJIANSHAO、FEIPANGCHENGDUZENGJIAHEQITAXIANGGUANJIBING。

                                  星力9代  47.YOUXIDEYINGXIAOHESHANGYEHUA:WEIYUANHUIBIAOSHIGUANQIEDESHI,XUDUOERTONGJIQIJIATINGMIANLINWANJUHEYOUXIZHIZAOSHANGRIYIZENGJIADEBUSHOUJIANGUANDESHANGYEHUAHEYINGXIAOXINGWEIYINGXIANG。JIAZHANGPOYUYALI,GOUMAIYUELAIYUEDUODUIQIZINVDEFAZHANYOUHAIHUOYUFAHUICHUANGZAOXINGDEYOUXIXIANGBEIDECHANPIN,RUXUANCHUANDIANSHIJIEMU、YOUJIDINGRENWUHEGUSHI、ZUAIFAHUIXIANGXIANGLIDECHANPIN;DAIYOUWEIXINGCHULIXINPIAN、SHIERTONGCHENGWEIBEIDONGGUANCHAZHEDEWANJU;YUXIANSHEDINGHUODONGMOSHIDECHENGTAOCHANPIN;XUANCHUANCHUANTONGDEXINGBIEDINGXINGGUANNIANHUODAOZHINVTONGXINGZAOSHUDEWANJU;HANYOUWEIXIANHUAXUEWUZHIDEWANJU;MONIZHANZHENGWANJUHEYOUXIDENG。QUANQIUYINGXIAOHUODONGHAIYOUKENENGXUERUOERTONGCANJIAXIAOQUCHUANTONGWENHUAHEYISHUSHENGHUODECHENGDU。

                                    七.需要特别关注以实现其在第31条之下权利的儿童

                                    48.NVTONG:CHENGDANJIAWUHEZHAOKANXIONGDIJIEMEIJIJIARENDEZHONGFU、JIAZHANGDEBAOHUXINLI、QUEFASHIDANGSHESHI、DUINVTONGDEYUQIHEXINGWEISHIJIAXIANZHIDEWENHUAJIADING,SHANGSHUYINSUJIEHEQILAI,XIANZHILENVTONGXIANGYOUDI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLI,YOUQISHIZAIQINGSHAONIANSHIQI。CIWAI,CONGXINGBIESHANGQUFENNVHAIHENANHAIDEYOUXIBEIGUANGDAJIAZHANG、KANHUREN、MEITIJIYOUXIHEWANJUZHIZAOSHANG/SHENGCHANSHANGQIANGHUA,DAOZHISHEHUISHANGRENGRANBAOCHICHUANTONGDEXINGBIEZUOYONGHUAFEN。YOUZHENGJUBIAOMING,NANHAIDEYOUXIWEITAMENZAIXIANDAISHEHUIZHONGCHENGGONGCONGSHIGEZHONGZHIYEHESHIYINGLINGYIXIEHUANJINGZUOZHUNBEI,FANZHI,NVHAIDEYOUXITONGCHANGYINDAOTAMENJINRUJIATINGZHEIZHONGSIRENSHENGHUOLINGYUYIJIWEILAICHONGDANGQIZIHEMUQINDEJIAOSE。QINGSHAONIANNANNVCHANGCHANGBEIZUZHIJINXINGLIANHEYULEHUODONG。CIWAI,YOUYUWAIBUWENHUAHUOZIWOSHIJIADEPAICHIHUOQUEFASHIDANGTIAOJIANDENGYINSU,NVHAICANJIATIYUHUODONGHEYOUZUZHIYOUXIDECHENGDUPUBIANJIAODI。ZHEIYIZHUANGKUANGLINGRENDANYOU,YINWEIYIZHENGMINGCANJIATIYUHUODONGKEDAILAISHENTI、XINLI、SHEHUIHEXINZHIDENGFANGMIANDEZHUDUOSHOUYI。8JIANYUGUANGFANCUNZAIZHEIXIEZHIYUENVTONGSHIXIANQIZAIDI31TIAOZHIXIAQUANLIDEPUBIANZHANGAI,WEIYUANHUICUQINGDIYUEGUOCAIQUXINGDONGYUXINGBIEDINGXINGGUANNIANZUODOUZHENG,YINWEIZHEILEIGUANNIANZHUZHANGBINGQIANGHUAQISHIDEXINGSHIJIJIHUIBUJUNDENGDEXIANXIANG。

                                  星力9代  49.PINKUNERTONG:JIECHUBUDAOXIANGGUANSHESHI、MEIYOUNENGLIZHIFUCANJIADEFEIYONG、WEIXIANHESHOUDAOHUSHIDEJIEQUHUANJING、BIXUGONGZUOYIJIWUZHUGANHESHOUDAOBIANYUANHUADEGANJUE,SUOYOUZHEIXIEYINSUDOUZUAIZUIPINKUNDEERTONGSHIXIANDI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLI。XUDUOERTONGBUJINMIANLINJIANKANGFENGXIANHEJIATINGYIWAIDEANQUANWENTI,QIJIATINGHUANJINGYEWANQUANHUOJIHUWUFAWEIZHITIGONGYOUXIHUOYULEDEKONGJIANHUOCHANGSUO。MEIYOUFUMUDEERTONGYOUQIRONGYISANGSHIDI31TIAOZHIXIADEQUANLI;JIETOUERTONGMEIYOUYOUXIDETIAOJIAN,TONGCHANGBEICHENGSHIGONGYUANHEYOUXICHANGSUOYOUYIPAICHIZAIWAI,DANTAMENFAHUIZIJIDECHUANGZAOXING,ZAIJIEDAOZHEIZHONGFEIZHENGSHICHANGSUOXUNQIUYOUXIJIHUI。CHENGZHENZHENGFUBIXURENSHIDAOGONGYUANHEYOUXICHANGSUODUIPINKUNERTONGSHIXIANDI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLIFAHUIDEZHONGYAOZUOYONG,YINGJIUBUSHUJINGLI、GUIHUAHEFAZHANJUCUODENGWENTIYUTAMENJINXINGDUIHUA。GEGUODOUXUCAIQUXINGDONG,QUEBAOSUOYOUERTONGNENGGOUJIECHUHEHUODECANYUWENHUAYUYISHUHUODONGDEJIHUIYIJICANYUYOUXIHEYULEDEPINGDENGJIHUI。

                                    50.CANJIERTONG:CANJIERTONGZAISHIXIANDI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLIFANGMIANMIANLINDUOZHONGZHANGAIDEZHIYUE,QIZHONGBAOKUO:BEIKEYIJIAOPENGYOUHEJINXINGYOUXIHEYULEDEXUEXIAO、FEIZHENGSHIHESHEHUICHANGSUOPAICHIZAIWAI;ZAIJIATINGZHONGSHOUDAOGELI;CHOUSHIHEPAICHICANJIERTONGDEWENHUATAIDUHEFUMIANPIANJIAN;GONGGONGCHANGSUO、GONGYUAN、YOUXICHANGSUOHESHESHI、DIANYINGYUAN、JUYUAN、YINLETING、YUNDONGSHESHIHECHANGGUANDENGDICUNZAIJINRUZHANGAI;YIANQUANWEIYOUJINZHITAMENJINRUYUNDONGHUOWENHUACHANGSUODEZHENGCE;JIAOLIUZHANGAIHEBUNENGTIGONGFANYIHESHIYINGQIXUYAODEJISHU;QUEFAWUZHANGAIDEJIAOTONGFANGSHIDENG。RUGUOMEIYOUXIANGGUANTOUZI,YONGYUBANGZHUCANJIERTONGJIECHUGUANGBODIANTAI、DIANSHI、JISUANJIHEPINGBANJISUANJI,BAOKUOCAIYONGFUZHUKEJIBANGZHUQIJIECHUZHEIXIESHESHI,YEHUIXIANZHIZHEIXIEERTONGXIANGYOUQIQUANLI。ZAIZHEIFANGMIAN,WEIYUANHUIHUANYING《CANJIRENQUANLIGONGYUE》DISANSHITIAO,GAITIAOQIANGDIAODIYUEGUOYOUYIWUQUEBAOCANJIERTONGXIANGYOUYUQITAERTONGYIYANGDEPINGDENGJIHUICANJIAYOUXI、YULETIYUJIXIUXIANHUODONG,BAOKUOZAIZHULIUXUEXIAOXITONGCANJIAZHEILEIHUODONG。YOUBIYAOZHUDONGCAIQUCUOSHI,XIAOCHUZHANGAI,CUJINWUZHANGAIXING,WEICANJIERTONGCANYUSUOYOUZHEILEIHUODONGTIGONGBAORONGDEJIHUI。9

                                    51.SHOURONGJIGOUDEERTONG:YOUXUDUOERTONGZAISHOURONGJIGOUZHONGDUGUOSUOYOUHUOBUFENERTONGSHIDAI,ZHEILEIJIGOUBAOKUOSHOURONGSUOHEXUEXIAO、YIYUAN、JULIUZHONGXIN、QINGSHAONIANJULIUSUOHENANMINZHONGXINDENG,ZAIZHEIXIECHANGSUO,TAMENYOUXI、YULEHECANYUWENHUAYUYISHUSHENGHUODEJIHUIKENENGSHOUDAOXIANZHIHUOBEIBODUO。WEIYUANHUIQIANGDIAO,GEGUOYINGNULIBIMIANJIANGERTONGANZHIZAISHOURONGCHANGSUO;ZAISHIXIANZHEIYIMUBIAOZHIQIAN,GEGUOYINGCAIQUCUOSHI,QUEBAOSUOYOUZHEILEIJIGOUBAOZHENGWEIERTONGTIGONGKONGJIANHEJIHUI,SHITAMENNENGGOUYUTONGYIXIAOQUDEHUOBANJIAOLIU、WANSHUAHECANJIAYOUXI、TIYUHUODONGJIWENHUAYUYISHUSHENGHUO。ZHEILEICUOSHIBUYINGJUXIANYUQIANGZHIHUOYOUZUZHIDEHUODONG;YOUBIYAOTIGONGANQUANHEJILIDEHUANJING,SHIERTONGNENGGOUJINXINGZIYOUDEYOUXIHEYULE。YINGZAIKENENGDEQINGKUANGXIA,ZAIDIFANGXIAOQUWEIERTONGTIGONGZHEILEIJIHUI。ZAISHOURONGJIGOUZHANGQISHENGHUODEERTONGHAIXUYAOHUODEZUGOUDEWENXUEZUOPIN、QIKANJIJIECHUHULIANWANG,HAIYINGWEIBANGZHUTAMENSHIYONGZHEILEIZIYUANTIGONGZHICHI。YOUBIYAOTIGONGSHIJIAN、SHIDANGDEKONGJIAN、CHONGZUDEZIYUANYUSHEBEI、XUNLIANYOUSUHEZIJUEDEGONGZUORENYUANJIZHUANMENYUSUAN,YIBIANCHUANGZAOBIYAODEHUANJING,QUEBAOSUOYOUZAISHOURONGJIGOUSHENGHUODEERTONGNENGGOUSHIXIANQIZAIDI31TIAOZHIXIADEQUANLI。

                                  星力9代  52.TUZHUHESHAOSHUMINZUERTONG:ZUYI、ZONGJIAO、ZHONGZUHUOZHONGXINGQISHIKENENGDAOZHIERTONGWUFASHIXIANZAIDI31TIAOZHIXIADEQUANLI。CHOUSHI、TONGHUAZHENGCE、PAICHI、BAOLIHEQISHIDOUKENENGCHENGWEIZHANGAI,FANGAITUZHUHESHAOSHUMINZUERTONGSHIJIANZISHENDEWENHUAXISU、YISHIHEQINGDIAN,BINGZUAITAMENYUQITAERTONGYIDAOCANYUTIYU、JINGJI、WENHUAHUODONG、YOUXIHEYULEHUODONG。GEGUOYOUYIWUCHENGREN、BAOHUHEZUNZHONGSHAOSHUQUNTICANJIAZAIQIZISHENSHENGHUODESHEHUIZHONGDEWENHUAYUYULEHUODONG,YIJIBAOHU、CUJINHEFAZHANQIZISHENWENHUADEQUANLI。10DANSHI,TUZHUERTONGYEYOUQUANTIYANHETANSUOQIZISHENJIATINGCHUANTONGJIEXIANFANWEIYIWAIDEWENHUA。WENHUAYUYISHUFANGANBIXUYIBAORONGXING、CANYUHEBUQISHIZUOWEIJICHU。

                                  星力9代  53.ZAICHONGTU、RENDAOZHUYIWEIJIHEZIRANZAIHAICHUJINGZHONGDEERTONG:ZAIFASHENGCHONGTUHUOZIRANZAIHAIDEQINGKUANGXIA,DI31TIAOGUIDINGDEQUANLIXIANGYOUDEYOUXIANJIBIECHANGCHANGDIYUTIGONGSHIWU、BIHUCHANGSUOHEYAOPIN。RANER,ZAIZHEILEIQINGKUANGXIA,ERTONGZAIZAOYUSUNSHI、HUNLUANHECHUANGSHANGZHIHOU,YOUXI、YULEHECANJIAWENHUAHUODONGDEJIHUIKEZAIBANGZHUERTONGHUIFUZHENGCHANGHEKUAILEGANDENGFANGMIANFAHUIZHONGYAODEZHILIAOHEKANGFUZUOYONG。LIRU,YOUXI、YINLE、SHIGEHUOXIJUNENGGOUBANGZHUNANMINERTONGHEZAOSHOUSANGQIN、BAOLI、NVEDAIHUOBOXUEDEERTONGKEFUQINGGANSHANGTONG,ZHONGXINBAWOZIJIDERENSHENG。ZHEILEIHUODONGKEHUIFURENTONGGAN,BANGZHUERTONGLIJIEZAITAMENSHENSHANGFASHENGDESHIJIAN,BINGSHITAMENZHAOHUILEQUHEXIANGSHOU。CANJIAWENHUAHUOYISHUHUODONGYIJIYOUXIHEYULESHIERTONGYOUJIHUIFENXIANGTIYAN、ZHONGJIANGERENJIAZHIGAN、TANSUOZISHENDECHUANGZAOXINGYIJIHUODEYIZHONGLIANTONGHEGUISHUGAN。CHUANGZAOYOUXIHUANJINGHAIWEIJIANCEZHETIGONGLECHAMINGZAOSHOUCHONGTUYOUHAIYINGXIANGDEERTONGDEJIHUI。

                                    八.缔约国的义务

                                  星力9代  54.DI31TIAOYAOQIUDIYUEGUOLVXINGSANXIANGYIWU,BAOZHENGSUOYOUERTONGDOUNENGGOUBUSHOUQISHIDISHIXIANGAITIAOSUOZAIQUANLI:

                                    a. ZUNZHONGDEYIWUYAOQIUDIYUEGUOBUKEZHIJIEHUOJIANJIEGANSHEXIANGYOUDI31TIAOGUIDINGDEYIWU;

                                  星力9代  b. BAOHUDEYIWUYAOQIUDIYUEGUOCAIQUBUZHOU,FANGZHIXIELICHANGSHANGGANSHEXIANGYOUDI31TIAOZHIXIADEYIWU;

                                    c. LUOSHIDEYIWUYAOQIUDIYUEGUOCAIQUBIYAODELIFA、XINGZHENG、SIFA、YUSUAN、CUJINHEQITACUOSHI,TONGGUOCAIQUXINGDONG,TIGONGYIQIEBIYAODEFUWU、SHESHIHEJIHUI,YICUJINQUANMIANXIANGYOUDI31TIAOGUIDINGDEQUANLI。

                                  星力9代  55.《JINGJI、SHEHUI、WENHUAQUANLIGUOJIGONGYUE》ZAIGUIDINGZHUBUSHIXIANJINGJI、SHEHUIHEWENHUAQUANLIBINGRENSHIDAOZIYUANYOUXIANHUIYINQIWENTIDETONGSHI,YEGUIDINGDIYUEGUOYOUJUTIHECHIXUDEYIWU,JISHIZAIZIYUANBUZUDEQINGKUANGXIA,YEYING“ZHENGQUBAOZHENGZAIZHEIZHONGTIAOJIANXIAJINKENENGGUANGFANDIXIANGYOUYOUGUANDEQUANLI”11YINCI,JINZHIRENHEYUDI31TIAOZHIXIADEQUANLIXIANGGUANDEDAOTUICUOSHI。RUGUOYOUYICAIQUZHEILEICUOSHI,DIYUEGUOBIXUZHENGMINGYIRENZHENSHENYILESUOYOUTIDAIFANGFA,BAOKUODUIERTONGJIUCIWENTIBIAODADEKANFAJIYUSHIDANGZHONGSHIBINGQIEJUEDINGYONGYOUHELIDEJIESHI,MINGJI《GONGYUE》GUIDINGDESUOYOUQITAQUANLI。

                                  星力9代  56.ZUNZHONGDEYIWUBAOKUOZHIDINGJUTICUOSHI,ZHIZAISHIXIANDUIMEIGEERTONGGERENHUOYUTARENYIDAOSHIXIANZAIDI31TIAOZHIXIAQUANLIDEZUNZHONG,BAOKUO:

                                  星力9代  a. WEIKANHURENTIGONGZHICHI:YINGGENJU《GONGYUE》DI18TIAODI2KUAN,JIUSHIXIANDI31TIAOZHIXIADEQUANLI,XIANGJIAZHANGHEKANHURENTIGONGZHIDAO、ZHICHIYUBIANLI。LIRU,ZHEILEIZHICHIKECAIQUXIANSHIZHIDAODEXINGSHI,ZHIDAOBAOKUORUHEZAIYOUXISHIQINGTINGERTONGDESHENGYIN;CHUANGZAOBIANYUERTONGYOUXIDEHUANJING;YUNXUERTONGZIYOUYOUXIHEYUQITAERTONGYOUXI。GAIZHIDAOHAIYINGQIANGDIAOGULICHUANGZAOXINGHELINGQIAO;PINGHENGANQUANWENTIHETANSUOFAXIAN;JIAZHIDUIFAZHANDEZHONGYAOXINGYIJIZAIZHIDAOXIAJIECHUWENHUA、YISHUHEYULEHUODONGDENG。

                                    b. TIGAORENSHI:DIYUEGUOYINGTOUZIYUYIXIECUOSHI,DUIBUZHONGSHIDI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLIDEPUBIANWENHUATAIDUTICHUZHIYI,BAOKUO:

                                    • SHIGONGZHONGRENSHIDAOYOUXI、YULE、XIUXI、XIANXIAJICANYUWENHUAYUYISHUHUODONGBUJINSHISUOYOUNIANLINGDENANHAIYUNVHAIYONGYOUDEYIXIANGQUANLI,ERQIEDUICUJINTAMENXIANGSHOUTONGNIAN、CUJINERTONGDEZUIJIAFAZHANYIJIJIANLIJIJIDEXUEXIHUANJINGJUYOUZHONGYAOYIYI;

                                    • CAIQUCUOSHI,ZHIYIPUBIANCUNZAIDE,YOUQISHIZHENDUIQINGSHAONIANDEFUMIANTAIDU,ZHEIZHONGTAIDUXIANZHITAMENXIANGYOUDI31TIAOZHIXIASUOZAIQUANLIDEJIHUI。JUTIERYAN,YINGWEIERTONGCHUANGZAOJIHUI,ZAIMEITIZHONGZHANXIANZIWO。

                                  星力9代  57.BAOHUDEYIWUYAOQIUDIYUEGUOCAIQUXINGDONG,FANGZHIXIELICHANGSHANGGANSHEHUOXIANZHIDI31TIAOGUIDINGDEQUANLI。YINCI,GEGUOYOUYIWUQUEBAO:

                                    a. BUQISHI:XUZHIDINGFALV,BAOZHENGMEIYIMINGERTONGDOUNENGGOUBUSHOURENHELIYOUQISHIDIJIECHUSUOYOUYULE、WENHUAYUYISHUHUANJING,BAOKUOGONGGONGHESIRENKONGJIAN、ZIRANKONGJIAN、GONGYUAN、YOUXICHANGSUO、YUNDONGCHANGGUAN、BOWUGUAN、YINGYUAN、TUSHUGUAN、JUYUAN,YIJIWENHUAHUODONG、FUWUYUXIANGMU;

                                    b. DUIFEIGUOJIAXINGWEIZHEDEJIANGUAN:YINGZHIDINGFALV、GUIZHANGHEZHUNZE,TONGSHIZHIDINGBIYAODEYUSUANFENPEIHEYOUXIAODEJIANCEYUZHIXINGJIZHI,YIQUEBAOGONGMINSHEHUIDESUOYOUCHENGYUAN,BAOKUOQIYEJIEZUNSHOUDI31TIAODEGUIDING,QIZHONGBAOKUO:

                                    • WEISUOYOUERTONGTIGONGJIUYEBAOHU,BAOZHENGDUIGONGZUODEXINGZHI、XIAOSHIHETIANSHUJINXINGSHIDANGXIANZHI,BAOZHENGGENJUERTONGBUDUANBIANHUADENENGLIGUIDINGXIUXISHIJIANBINGTIGONGYONGYUYULEHEXIUXIDESHESHI。GULIGEGUOPIZHUNHEZHIXINGLAOGONGZUZHIDI79、90、138HE182HAOGONGYUE;12

                                    • WEISUOYOUYOUXIHEYULESHESHI、WANJUHEJINGSAISHEBEIGUIDINGANQUANXINGHEWUZHANGAIXINGBIAOZHUN;

                                    • LVXINGZAICHENGSHIHENONGCUNFAZHANJIHUAZHONGNARUYOUGUANSHIXIANDI31TIAOZHIXIAQUANLIDETIAOKUANJITIGONGXIANGGUANJIHUIDEYIWU;

                                    • BAOHUERTONGMIANYUJIECHUKENENGDUIQIFUZHICHANSHENGSHANGHAIDEWENHUA、YISHUHUOYULESHUJU,BAOKUODUIMEITIBOFANGDENEIRONGHEDIANYINGGUIDINGBAOHUHEFENJIZHIDU,TONGSHIKAOLVGUANYUYANLUNZIYOUDEDI13TIAOHEGUANYUJIAZHANGDEZERENDEDI18TIAODEGUIDING;

                                    • ZHIDINGJINZHIWEIERTONGSHENGCHANMONIZHANZHENGYOUXIHEWANJUDEGUIDING;

                                    c. BAOHUERTONGMIANSHOUSHANGHAI:BIXUZHENDUIZAIYOUXI、YULE、YUNDONG、WENHUAHEYISHUDENGFANGMIANCONGSHIERTONGGONGZUODESUOYOUZHUANYERENYUAN,ZHIDINGHEZHIXINGYOUGUANERTONGBAOHUDEZHENGCE、CHENGXU、ZHIYEDAODEGUIFAN、FAGUIHEBIAOZHUN。HAIBIXURENSHIDAO,YOUBIYAOBAOHUERTONGZAIXINGSHIDI31TIAOZHIXIAQUANLISHIMIANSHOUKENENGYOUQITAERTONGDAOZHIDEQIANZAISHANGHAI;13

                                    d. WANGLUOANQUAN:YINGCAIQUCUOSHI,CUJINWANGLUODEJIERUHEWUZHANGAIXINGYIJIERTONGDEANQUAN。ZHEILEICUOSHIYINGBAOKUOFUCHIHEWEIERTONGTIGONGXINXIDEXINGDONG,SHITAMENNENGGOUANQUANSHANGWANG,CHENGWEISHUZIHUANJINGZHONGZIXINHEYOUZERENDEGONGMIN,BINGBAOGAOYUDAODELANYONGHUOBUDANGXINGWEI。HAIXUYAOCAIQUCUOSHI,TONGGUOLIFAHEGUOJIHEZUO,JIANSHAODUILANYONGHULIANWANGDECHENGRENYOUZUIBUFADEXIANXIANG;DUIYOUHAIHUOPINGJIWEICHENGRENSHIYONGDESHUJUJIYOUXIWANGLUOSHEZHIJINRUXIANZHI;WEIJIAZHANG、JIAOSHIHEZHENGCEZHIDINGZHETIGONGJINYIBUZILIAO,YITIGAOTAMENDUIBAOLIYOUXIXIANGGUANQIANZAIFENGXIANDERENSHI,BINGZHIDINGCUJINWEIERTONGTIGONGGENGANQUANHEYOUXIYINLIDEXUANZEDEZHANLVE;

                                  星力9代  e. CHONGTUHOUDEANQUAN:YINGCAIQUJIJICUOSHI,ZAICHONGTUHOUJIZAIHAIQINGKUANGXIAHUIFUHEBAOHUDI31TIAOZHIXIADEQUANLI,BAOKUO:

                                  星力9代  • GULIYOUXIHEYOUCHUANGYIDEBIAODAFANGSHI,YICUJINRENXINGHEXINLIKANGFU;

                                    • CHUANGZAOHUOZHONGJIANANQUANDEKONGJIAN,BAOKUOXUEXIAO,SHIERTONGNENGGOUCANJIAYOUXIHEYULEHUODONG,ZUOWEIQISHENGHUOZHENGCHANGHUADEYIBUFEN;

                                  星力9代  • BIXUZAIDILEIDUIERTONGANQUANGOUCHENGWEIXIEDEDIDAIJINXINGTOUZI,QUEBAOWANQUANQINGCHUSUOYOUSHOUYINGXIANGDIQUDEDILEIHEJISHUZHADAN;14

                                    f. SHICHANGYINGXIAOYUMEITI:YINGKAIZHANXINGDONG,YIBIAN:

                                    • SHENCHAYOUGUANERTONGWANJUHEYOUXISHANGYEHUA,BAOKUOYIERTONGDIANSHIJIEMUHEZHIJIEXIANGGUANDEGUANGGAOXINGSHISHIXIANSHANGYEHUADEZHENGCE,YOUQIGUANZHUXUANCHUANBAOLI、YIXINGGANFANGSHICHENGXIANNVHAIHUONANHAIYIJIQIANGHUAXINGBIEPIANJIANHEDUICANJIRENDEPIANJIANDEGUANGGAO;

                                    • XIANZHIERTONGGUANKANGAOFENGSHIJIANDEGUANGGAO;

                                  星力9代  g. TOUSUJIZHI:BIXUWEIERTONGZHIDINGDULI、YOUXIAO、ANQUANHEKEYONGDEJIZHI,SHITAMENZAIDI31TIAOZHIXIADEQUANLISHOUDAOQINFANDEQINGKUANGXIANENGGOUTICHUTOUSUHEXUNQIUBUCHANG。15ERTONGXUYAOLEJIETAMENNENGGOUXIANGSHEITOUSUHERUHETOUSU(CHENGXURUHE)。GULIGEGUOQIANSHUHEPIZHUN《ERTONGQUANLIGONGYUEGUANYUSHEDINGLAIWENCHENGXUDERENZEYIDINGSHU》,YUNXUDANDUDEERTONGTIJIAOYOUGUANQUANLISHOUDAOQINFANDETOUSU。

                                    58.LUOSHIDEYIWUYAOQIUDIYUEGUOZHIDINGYIXILIECUOSHI,QUEBAOLUOSHIDI31TIAOGUIDINGDESUOYOUQUANLI。GENJU《GONGYUE》DI12TIAO,BULUNSHIZAIGUOJIAHAISHIDIFANGCENGMIANDESUOYOUZHEILEICUOSHI,BAOKUOGUIHUA、SHEJI、ZHIDING、ZHIXINGHEJIANCEDENGCUOSHIDOUYINGYUERTONGBENSHENYIJIFEIZHENGFUZUZHIHEJIYUXIAOQUDEZUZHIHEZUOZHIDING,LIRU,KETONGGUOERTONGJULEBUHEXIEHUI、XIAOQUYISHUYUYUNDONGTUANTI、CANJIERTONGHECHENGRENDEDAIBIAOZUZHI、SHAOSHUQUNTIHEYOUXIZUZHIDEDAIBIAOKAIZHANHEZUO。16JUTIERYAN,YINGKAOLVYIXIAWENTI:

                                    a. LIFAHEGUIHUA:WEIYUANHUIQIANGLIEJIANYIGEGUOKAOLVZHIDINGQUEBAOMEIMINGERTONGSHIXIANDI31TIAOZHIXIAQUANLIDEFALV,TONGSHIZHIDINGZHIXINGSHIJIANBIAO。ZHEIYIFALVYINGCAINACHONGZUXINGYUANZE――YINGJIYUSUOYOUERTONGXINGSHIZHEIXIEQUANLIDECHONGZUDESHIJIANYUKONGJIAN。HAIYINGKAOLVZHENDUIDI31TIAOZHIDINGZHUANMENDEJIHUA、ZHENGCEHUOKUANGJIA,HUOJIANGQINARUZHIXING《GONGYUE》DEZONGTIGUOJIAXINGDONGJIHUA。GAIJIHUAYINGKAOLVDI31TIAODUISUOYOUNIANLINGDUANNANHAIHENVHAIDEYINGXIANG,YIJIDUIBEIBIANYUANHUAQUNTIHEXIAOQUERTONGDEYINGXIANG;JIHUAHAIYINGRENSHIDAO,WEIERTONGZIJIZHUDAODEHUODONGCHUANGZAOSHIJIANYUKONGJIANYUWEIYOUZUZHIDEHUODONGTIGONGSHESHIYUJIHUITONGYANGZHONGYAO;

                                    b. SHOUJIZILIAOHEYANJIU:XUYAOZHIDINGHENGLIANGZUNSHOUQINGKUANGDEZHIBIAOYIJIYONGYUJIANCEHEPINGGUDEJIZHI,YIBIANQUEBAOZAILVXINGDI31TIAOZHIXIADEYIWUFANGMIANDUIERTONGFUZE。GEGUOXUYAOSHOUJIJIYURENKOUDESHUJU,ANNIANLING、XINGBIE、ZUYIHECANJIZHUANGKUANGFENLIE,CONGERLEJIEERTONGCANJIAYOUXI、YULEJIWENHUAHEYISHUSHENGHUODECHENGDUYUXINGZHI。ZHEILEISHUJUYINGDANGWEIGUIHUACHENGXUTIGONGCANKAO,BINGZUOWEIHENGLIANGZHIXINGJINZHANDEYIJU。HAIXUYAODUIERTONGJIQIKANHURENDERICHANGSHENGHUOJIZHUFANGHEZHUSUOZHOUWEIHUANJINGTIAOJIANDEYINGXIANGKAIZHANYANJIU,YIBIANLEJIEERTONGJIQIKANHURENLIYONGDANGDIHUANJINGDEQINGKUANG;ZAIXIANGYOUDI31TIAOZHIXIAQUANLISHIYUDAODEZHANGAI;WEIKUAYUEZHEIXIEZHANGAICAINADEFANGZHENYIJIJINYIBUSHIXIANZHEIXIEQUANLISUOXUDEXINGDONG。ZHEILEIYANJIUBIXUJIJIXISHOUERTONGBENSHEN,BAOKUOLAIZIZUIBIANYUANHUAXIAOQUERTONGDECANYU;

                                  星力9代  c. GUOJIAYUSHIZHENZHENGFUDEKUABUMENHEZUO:DUIYOUXI、YULEHEWENHUAJIYISHUHUODONGJINXINGGUIHUAYAOQIUNARUYIZHONGGUANGFANHEZONGHEDEFANGZHEN,SHEJIGUOJIA、QUYUHESHIZHENDANGJUZHIJIANDEKUABUMENHEZUOHEWENZE。XIANGGUANBUMENBUJINBAOKUOZHIJIECHULIERTONGSHIWUDEBUMEN,RUWEISHENG、JIAOYU、SHEHUIFUWU、ERTONGBAOHU、WENHUA、YULEHETIYUDENGBUMEN,HAIBAOKUOYUSHUIHEWEISHENGSHESHI、ZHUFANG、GONGYUAN、JIAOTONG、HUANJINGHECHENGSHIGUIHUAXIANGGUANDEBUMEN,SUOYOUZHEIXIEBUMENDOUDUICHUANGZAONENGGOUSHIERTONGSHIXIANDI31TIAOZHIXIAQUANLIDEHUANJINGCHANSHENGZHONGYAOYINGXIANG;

                                    d. YUSUAN:YINGSHENCHAYUSUAN,QUEBAONARUWEIERTONGDEWENHUA、YISHU、TIYU、YULEHEYOUXIHUODONGHUABODEYUSUAN,BINGQIEYUERTONGZAIZONGRENKOUZHONGSUOZHANBILIXIANGFU,BINGZAISUOYOUNIANLINGDUANDEERTONGZHONGJINXINGFENPEI,LIRUWEIYIXIAHUODONGTIGONGYUSUANZHICHI:ZHIZUOHEFABUERTONGSHUJI、ZAZHIHEWENZHANG;WEIERTONGTIGONGGEZHONGZHENGSHIHEFEIZHENGSHIYISHUBIAOXIANXINGSHI;WUZHANGAIDESHEBEIYUJIANZHUJIGONGGONGKONGJIAN;WEITIYUJULEBUHUOQINGNIANZHONGXINDENGSHESHITIGONGZIYUAN。HAIYINGKAOLVQUEBAOZUISHOUBIANYUANHUAERTONGSHIYONGSHESHISUOXUCUOSHIDEFEIYONG,BAOKUOYOUYIWUTIGONGHELIDESHISUFUWU,QUEBAOCANJIERTONGKEPINGDENGDISHIYONGSHESHI;

                                    e. TONGYONGSHEJI17:TOUZIYUTONGYONGSHEJIZAIYOUXI、YULE、WENHUA、YISHUHETIYUSHESHI、JIANZHU、SHEBEIHEFUWUDENGFANGMIANSHIBIYAODE,YUCUJINBAORONGHEBAOHUCANJIERTONGMIANSHOUQISHIDEYIWUXIANGFU。GEGUOYINGDIAODONGFEIGUOJIAXINGWEIZHE,QUEBAOZAIGUIHUAHESHENGCHANSUOYOUCAILIAOHEJIANZAOSUOYOUCHANGGUANSHISHISHITONGYONGSHEJI,LIRU:KEGONGLUNYISHIYONGZHEWUZHANGAITONGXINGDERUKOUYIJIYOUXIHUANJINGDEBAORONGXINGSHEJI,BAOKUOXUEXIAODEYOUXIHUANJING;

                                    f. CHENGZHENGUIHUA:DIFANGSHIZHENDANGJUYINGDUITIGONGYOUXIHEYULESHESHIDEQINGKUANGJINXINGPINGGU,BAOKUOTONGGUODUIERTONGYINGXIANGDEPINGGU,BAOZHENGSUOYOUQUNTIDEERTONGKEPINGDENGLIYONGZHEIXIESHESHI。ANZHAODI31TIAOZHIXIADEYIWU,GONGGONGGUIHUABIXUYOUXIANGUANZHUCHUANGZAONENGGOUCUJINERTONGFUZHIDEHUANJING。WEILECHUANGZAOSUOXUDUIERTONGYOUHAODECHENGSHIHENONGCUNHUANJING,YINGKAOLVYIXIAWENTI:

                                    • TIGONGANQUANHENENGGOUWEISUOYOUERTONGWUZHANGAISHIYONGDEGONGYUAN、XIAOQUZHONGXIN、YUNDONGHEYOUXICHANGSUO;

                                  星力9代  • CHUANGZAOSHIYUZIYOUYOUXIDEANQUANSHENGHUOHUANJING,BAOKUOSHEJIYIXIEYOUXIZHE、XINGRENHEQIZIXINGCHEDERENYOUYOUXIANQUANDEDIDAI;

                                    • CAIQUGONGGONGANQUANCUOSHI,BAOHUYOUXIHEYULEDIDAIMIANSHOUWEIXIEERTONGANQUANDEGERENHUOQUNTIDEYINGXIANG;

                                    • TIGONGANQUAN、KEFUDANHEWUZHANGAIDEJIAOTONG,SHIYOUXIHEYULENENGGOULIYONGZIRANHUANJINGZHONGDELVSEDIDAI,DAFANWEIDEKAIFANGKONGJIANHEZIRAN;

                                  星力9代  • CAIQUDAOLUJIAOTONGCUOSHI,BAOKUOXIANZHISHISU、WURANCHENGDU、SHEZHIXUEXIAOJIAOCHALUKOU、JIAOTONGXINHAODENG、YIJIJIANSHAOZAOYINDECUOSHI,YIQUEBAOERTONGZAIDANGDIXIAOQUANQUANYOUXIDEQUANLI;

                                    • WEISUOYOUNIANLINGHELAIZISUOYOUXIAOQUDENVHAIYUNANHAITIGONGJULEBU、YUNDONGSHESHI、YOUZUZHIDEYOUXIHEHUODONG;

                                    • WEISUOYOUNIANLINGJILAIZISUOYOUXIAOQUDEERTONGTIGONGZHUANMENHEKEFUDANDEWENHUAHUODONG,BAOKUOXIJU、WUDAO、YINLE、YISHUZHANLAN、TUSHUGUANHEYINGYUAN。ZHEIFANGMIANDEGONGZUOHAIYINGBAOKUOWEIERTONGTIGONGJIHUI,ZHIZUOHECHUANGZUOZIJIDEWENHUAXINGSHIYIJICANJIAYOUCHENGRENWEIERTONGTIGONGDEHUODONG;

                                    • DUISUOYOUWENHUAZHENGCE、FANGANYUJIGOUJINXINGSHENCHA,QUEBAOQIWUZHANGAIXINGBINGYUSUOYOUERTONGXIANGGUAN,BINGQUEBAOQIKAOLVERTONGDEXUYAOHEYUANWANG,ZHICHITAMENXINCHUXIANDEWENHUAXINGWEI;

                                    g. XUEXIAO:JIAOYUHUANJINGYINGDUILVXINGDI31TIAOZHIXIADEYIWUFAHUIZHUYAOZUOYONG,BAOKUO:

                                    • WUZHIHUANJING:DIYUEGUOYINGNULIQUEBAOZAISHANGXUESHIJIANHEZHEIYISHIJIANQIANHOUTIGONGCHONGFENDESHINEIHESHIWAIKONGJIAN,WEIYOUXI、YUNDONG、JINGSAIHEXIJUHUODONGTIGONGFANGBIAN;JIJICUJINNVHAIHENANHAIDEPINGDENGYOUXIJIHUI,WEINANHAIHENVHAITIGONGCHONGFENDEWEISHENGSHESHI;YOUXICHANGSUO、YOUXIDIDAIHESHEBEIYINGBAOZHENGANQUAN、JIESHOUDINGQIHESHIDANGJIANCHA;WEIYOUXICHANGSUOHUADINGSHIDANGBIANJIE;SHEJINENGGOUSHISUOYOUERTONG,BAOKUOCANJIERTONGPINGDENGCANYUDESHEBEIYUKONGJIAN;TIGONGYOUXIDIDAI,WEISUOYOUXINGSHIDEYOUXITIGONGJIHUI;YOUXIDIDAIDEDIDIANHESHEJINARUCHONGFENBAOHU,BINGQIEYOUERTONGCANYUSHEJIYUJIANSHE;

                                    • MEITIANDESHIJIANANPAI:BAOKUOYOUGUANJIATINGZUOYEDEFALVGUIDINGYINGBAOZHENGZAIBAITIANTIGONGSHIDANGSHIJIAN,QUEBAOERTONGNENGGOUGENJUZIJIDENIANLINGHEFAZHANXUYAOHUODECHONGFENDEXIUXIYUYOUXIJIHUI;

                                  星力9代  • XUEXIAOKECHENGSHEZHI:GENJUDI29TIAOYUJIAOYUDEMUDEXIANGGUANDEYIWU,XUEXIAODEKECHENGSHEZHIBIXUFENPEISHIDANGDESHIJIANHEZHUANMENKECHENG,GONGERTONGXUEXI、CANYUHECHUANGZAOWENHUAYUYISHUHUODONG,BAOKUOYINLE、XIJU、WENXUE、SHIGEHEYISHUYIJIYUNDONGHEJINGSAIDENG;18

                                  星力9代  • JIAOXUEFANGFA:XUEXIHUANJINGYINGSHIJIJIDE,GULICANYUDE,YOUQIZAIYOUJIAOSHIQITIGONGYOUXIHUODONGHEBUTONGCANYUXINGSHI;

                                    h. PEIXUNHENENGLIJIANSHE:SUOYOUCONGSHIERTONGGONGZUOHUOQIGONGZUODUIERTONGCHANSHENGYINGXIANG(ZHENGFUGUANYUAN、JIAOYUJIA、WEISHENGGONGZUOZHE、SHEHUIGONGZUOZHE、YOUJIAOHEKANHUREN、GUIHUAZHEHEJIANZHUSHIDENG)DEZHUANYERENYUANYINGJIESHOUYOUGUANERTONGDERENQUAN,BAOKUODI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLIDEXITONGXINGHECHIXUPEIXUN。ZHEILEIPEIXUNYINGBAOKUOTIGONGZHIDAO,XUEXIRUHECHUANGZAOHEWEICHISHISUOYOUERTONGZUIYOUXIAOSHIXIANDI31TIAOZHIXIAQUANLIDEHUANJING。

                                    59.GUOJIHEZUO:WEIYUANHUIGULIJIUSHIXIANDI31TIAOSUOZAIQUANLIKAIZHANGUOJIHEZUO,TONGGUOLIANHEGUOGEJIGOU,BAOKUOERTONGJIJINHUI、JIAOKEWENZUZHI、NANMINSHU、LIANHEGUORENJUSHU、LIANHEGUOTIYUCUJINFAZHANYUHEPINGBANGONGSHI、KAIFASHU、HUANJINGSHUHEWEISHENGZUZHIYIJIGUOJI、GUOJIAHEDIFANGFEIZHENGFUZUZHIDEJIJICANYUKAIZHANHEZUO。

                                    九.宣传

                                    60.WEIYUANHUIJIANYIDIYUEGUOZAIZHENGFUHEXINGZHENGGUANLIXITONGNEIXIANGJIAZHANG、QITAKANHUREN、ERTONG、ZHUANYEZUZHI、XIAOQUHEZHENGGEMINJIANSHEHUIGUANGFANXUANCHUANBENYIBANXINGYIJIAN。YINGDANGSHIYONGGEZHONGCHUANBOGUANDAO,BAOKUOYINSHUAMEITI、HULIANWANGHEERTONGZIJIDEJIAOLIUGUANDAO。ZHEIJIUXUYAOJIANGYIBANXINGYIJIANYICHENGXIANGGUANYUYAN,BAOKUOSHOUYU、MANGWENHEFANGBIANCANJIERTONGYUEDUDEGESHI。HAIYAOQIUTIGONGSHIHETEDINGWENHUAHESHIHEERTONGDEBANBEN。

                                    61.HAIGULIDIYUEGUOXIANGERTONGQUANLIWEIYUANHUIQUANMIANBAOGAOWEIGULISUOYOUERTONGCHONGFENSHIXIANDI31TIAOCAIQUDECUOSHI。

                                    

                                    * ZAIWEIYUANHUIDILIUSHIERJIEHUIYI(2013NIAN1YUE14RIZHI2YUE1RI)SHANGTONGGUO。

                                  星力9代  1 JIAOKEWENZUZHI,《WEILEERSHIYISHIJIDEJIAOYU:WENTIYUZHANWANG》(BALI,1998NIAN)。

                                    2 JINGJI、SHEHUIHEWENHUAQUANLIWEIYUANHUI,GUANYURENRENYOUQUANCANJIAWENHUASHENGHUODEDI21(2009)HAOYIBANXINGYIJIAN,DI13DUAN。

                                  星力9代  3 JIANJIAOKEWENZUZHI,《MOXIGECHENGWENHUAZHENGCEXUANYAN》,SHIJIEWENHUAZHENGCEHUIYI,MOXIGECHENG,1982NIAN7YUE26RIZHI8YUE6RI。

                                  星力9代  4 JIANWEIYUANHUIGUANYUERTONGBIAODAYIJIANQUANDEDI12(2009)HAOYIBANXINGYIJIAN。

                                  星力9代  5 JIAN《CANJIRENQUANLIGONGYUE》,DIQI、DIJIUHEDISANSHITIAO。

                                    6 MartaSantosPais,“《ERTONGQUANLIGONGYUE》”,ZAIYURENQUANGAOZHUANBAN《RENQUANBAOGAOSHOUCE》(RINEIWA,1997NIAN),DI393-505YE。

                                  星力9代  7 ERTONGJIJINHUI,ChildSafetyOnline:GlobalChallengesandStrategies.Technicalreport(《ERTONGWANGLUOANQUAN:QUANQIUTIAOZHANHEZHANLVE-JISHUBAOGAO》)(FOLUOLUNSA,YINNUOQINDIYANJIUZHONGXIN,2012NIAN)。

                                  星力9代  8 JIAOKEWENZUZHI,《GUOJITIYUYUNDONGXIANZHANG》,1978NIAN。

                                  星力9代  9 GUANYUCANJIERTONGDEQUANLIDEDI9(2006)HAOYIBANXINGYIJIAN。

                                    10 《LIANHEGUOTUZHURENMINQUANLIXUANYAN》(DAHUIDI61/295HAOJUEYI,FUJIAN)。

                                  星力9代  11 JINGJI、SHEHUIHEWENHUAQUANLIWEIYUANHUIGUANYUDIYUEGUOYIWUDEXINGZHIDEDI3(1990)HAOYIBANXINGYIJIAN,DI11DUAN。

                                    12 LAOGONGZUZHIDI79HAOGONGYUE――《WEICHENGNIANREN(FEIGONGYEBUMENJIUYEXIANZHI)YEJIANGONGZUOGONGYUE》;DI90HAOGONGYUE――《(SHOUGUYONGYUGONGYEDE)WEICHENGNIANRENYEJIANGONGZUOGONGYUE》;DI138HAOGONGYUE――《ZHUNYUJIUYEZUIDINIANLINGGONGYUE》;DI182HAOGONGYUE――《ZUIELIEXINGSHIDETONGGONGLAODONGGONGYUE》。

                                  星力9代  13 GUANYUERTONGMIANZAOYIQIEXINGSHIBAOLIQINHAIDEQUANLIDEDI13(2011NIAN)HAOYIBANXINGYIJIAN。

                                    14 《ZHANZHENGYILIUBAOZHAWUYIDINGSHU》(《TEDINGCHANGGUIWUQIGONGYUE》DIWUHAOYIDINGSHU)。

                                  星力9代  15 GUANYUDULIDEGUOJIARENQUANJIGOUZAIZENGJINHEBAOHUERTONGQUANLIFANGMIANDEZUOYONGDEDI2(2002)HAOYIBANXINGYIJIAN。

                                  星力9代  16 GUANYUERTONGBIAODAYIJIANDEQUANLIDEDI12(2009)HAOYIBANXINGYIJIAN。

                                    17 RonaldMaceCHUANGZAOLE“TONGYONGSHEJI”YICI,ZHEIYIGAINIANZHIDESHIZAISHEJISUOYOUCHANPINHEJIANZAOHUANJINGSHIJINZUIDAKENENGFUHESUOYOURENDESHENMEIBINGNENGGOUWEISUOYOURENSUOYONG,BULUNQINIANLING、NENGLIHUOSHENGHUOZHUANGKUANGRUHE;LINGJIAN《CANJIRENQUANLIGONGYUE》DISITIAODIYIKUANDI(LIU)XIANG。

                                    18 GUANYUJIAOYUDEMUDEDEDI1(2001)HAOYIBANXINGYIJIAN。

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